Assessment of the fetal behavior in normal and high-risk pregnancy during second and third trimesters.
Materials and methods
The study group included 61 healthy pregnant women and 135 pregnant women with high-risk pregnancy between 24 and 38 weeks of gestation for a period of 3 years (January 2009-May 2011). After 4D ultrasound examination we applied antenatal neurological score KANET 1. Score is considered normal between 14 and 20, borderline between 6 and 13 and abnormal between 0 and 5.
The Kurjak antenatal neurological test (KANET) scores have significant differences, when applied on the two groups of pregnant women. Most fetuses who obtained normal KANET score were found in normal pregnancies, those who obtained borderline score were fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with increased resistance index (RI) of middle cerebral artery (ACM) and the most fetuses with abnormal KANET score came from pregnancies complicated by threatened preterm delivery with PPROM.
Dynamic evaluation of fetal behavior reflects directly the processes of maturation and development of the central nervous system. This can make the difference between normal and abnormal brain development and may be used for early diagnosis of neurological disorders that become manifest in perinatal and postnatal periods.
How to cite this article
Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound Assessment of Fetal Neurobehavior in High-risk Pregnancies. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012;6(2):132-147.
To assess the onset and frequency of first interfetal contacts by 4D sonography.
Subjects and methods
Twenty twin pregnancies were scanned transvaginally between 56 (8 weeks) and 69 postmenstrual days (9+6 weeks) and onward transabdominally, at weekly intervals until 112 postmenstrual days (16 weeks). Scans were recorded on DVD and analyzed retrospectively. The moment of onset, type and frequency of intertwin contacts were assessed.
First interhuman contacts were observed between 61 (8+5 weeks) and 68 (9+5 weeks) postmenstrual days. The frequency of different movements varied according to the gestational age. ‘Touch no reaction’ and ‘First reaction’ were common and frequent from 70 postmenstrual days (10 weeks) onward. ‘Slow body movements’ were more common than ‘Fast body movements’. ‘Complex contacts’ were more frequent at 94 postmenstrual days (13+3 weeks). Simple contacts diminished around 100 postmenstrual days (14+2 weeks). ‘Complex contacts’ and ‘diffuse interactions’ were more commonly observed between 105 (15 weeks) and 112 postmenstrual days (16 weeks). No significant differences were found when different gender combinations were compared.
Intertwin contacts start as soon as 8+5 weeks of gestation and complex or diffuse interactions are already seen at 15 to 16 weeks of gestation.
How to cite this article
Prats P, Serra B, Fournier S, Baulies S, Andonotopo W, Kurjak A. 4D Sonographic Assessment of Intertwin Contacts. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012;6(2):154-159.