Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Register      Login

VOLUME 7 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2013 ) > List of Articles


Current Role of 3D/4D Sonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Sonila Pashaj, Eberhard Merz

Keywords : 3D ultrasound,4D ultrasound,Obstetrics,Gynecology,Display modes,Fetal malformations

Citation Information : Pashaj S, Merz E. Current Role of 3D/4D Sonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013; 7 (4):400-408.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1310

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-03-2014

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; The Author(s).


How to cite this article

Merz E, Pashaj S. Current Role of 3D/ 4D Sonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013;7(4):400-408.

PDF Share
  1. 3D/4D ultrasound in prenatal diagnosis: is it time for routine use? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2012 Mar;55(1):336-351.
  2. Three-and 4-dimensional ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology: proceedings of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine Consensus Conference. J Ultrasound Med 2005 Dec;24(12):1587-1597.
  3. 3-D ultrasound in prenatal diagnosis. In: Merz E, editor. Ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology Vol 1: Obstetrics. Stuttgart, New York: Thieme; 2007.
  4. Application of transvaginal and abdominal three-dimensional ultrasound for the detection or exclusion of malformations of the fetal face. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1997 Apr;9(4):237-243.
  5. Clinical applications of three-dimensional ultrasound in obstetrics. In: Baba K, Jurkovic D; editors. Threedimensional ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology. Parthenon, New York, London: CRC Press; 1997. p 29-36.
  6. Three-dimensional surface mode for demonstration of normal fetal anatomy in the second and third trimesters. In: Merz E, editors. 3-D ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology. Philadelphia, New York, Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 1998. p 95-100.
  7. 2D and 3D ultrasound evaluation of normal and abnormal fetal anomaly in the second and third trimesters in a level III center. Ultraschall Med 2005 Feb;26(1):9-16.
  8. Three-dimensional ultrasound with maximal mode rendering: a novel technique for the diagnosis of bilateral or unilateral absence or hypoplasia of nasal bones in secondtrimester screening for Down syndrome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005 Jan;25(1):19-24.
  9. The role of three-dimensional ultrasound in visualizing the fetal cranial sutures and fontanels during the second half of pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2004 Sep;24(4):412-416.
  10. Sonographic assessment of normal fetal palate using three-dimensional imaging: a new technique. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007 Feb;29(2):159-165.
  11. Spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC): new technology for evaluation of the fetal heart. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2003 Oct;22(4):380-387.
  12. New developments in fetal heart scanning: three-and four-dimensional fetal echocardiography. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2005 Dec;10(6):567-577.
  13. Automated retrieval of standard diagnostic fetal cardiac ultrasound planes in the second trimester of pregnancy: a prospective evaluation of software. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008 Jan;31(1):30-36.
  14. New scoring system for fetal neurobehaviour assessed by three-and four-dimensional sonography. J Perinat Med 2008;36(1):73-81.
  15. Fetal cardiac ventricular volume, cardiac output, and ejection fraction determined with 4-dimensional ultrasound using spatiotemporal image correlation and virtual organ computer-aided analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011 Jul;205(1):76.e1-10.
  16. Fetal lung volume measurements using 3D ultrasonography. Ultraschall Med 2011 Aug;32(4):373-380.
  17. Imaging of the human embryo with magnetic resonance imaging microscopy and high resolution transvaginal three-dimensional sonography: human embryology in the 21st century. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011 Jan;204(1):71-77.
  18. 3D imaging of the fetal face—recommendations from the International 3D Focus Group. Ultraschall Med 2012 Apr;33(2):175-182.
  19. Three-dimensional/four dimensional sonography moved prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies from the second to the first trimester of pregnancy. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012;6(4):376-390.
  20. Three-dimensional ultrasound for the assessment of uterine anatomy and detection of congenital anomalies: a comparison with hysterosalpingography and two-dimensional sonography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1995 Apr;5(4):233-237.
  21. Ultrasound imaging of the pelvic floor. Part II: threedimensional or volume imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2004 Jun;23(6):615-625.
  22. Transvaginal 3D/4D ultrasound and its application in gynecology. In: Merz E, editor. Ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology Vol 2: Gynecology. Stuttgart, New York: Thieme 2007.
  23. SonoAVC: a novel method of automatic volume calculation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008 Jun;31(6):691-696.
  24. Intra-and interobserver variability of 2D and 3D transvaginal sonography in the diagnosis of benign versus malignant adnexal masses. J Clin Ultrasound 2011 Jul;39(6):316-321.
  25. Three-dimensional ultrasound for assessing women with gynecological cancer: a systematic review. Gynecol Oncol 2011 Mar;120(3):340-346.
  26. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound for the study of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012 Nov;40(5):576-581.
  27. Value of three-dimensional hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography with SonoVue in the assessment of tubal patency. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012 Jul;40(1):93-98.
  28. Number of antral follicles, ovarian volume, and vascular indices in asymptomatic women 20 to 39 years old as assessed by 3-dimensional sonography: a prospective cross-sectional study. J Ultrasound Med 2012;31(10):1635-1649.
  29. Two-and three-dimensional sonographic and color Doppler techniques for diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. The stromal/ovarian volume ratio as a new diagnostic criterion. J Ultrasound Med 2012 Jul;31(7):1015-1024.
  30. Agreement and reliability of pelvic floor measurements during contraction using three-dimensional pelvic floor ultrasound and virtual reality. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012 Jul;40(1):87-92.
  31. Three-dimensional angioultrasonography for the prediction of malignancy in ovarian masses. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2013;75(2):120-125.
  32. Accuracy of 3-dimensional sonography for diagnosis and classification of congenital uterine anomalies. J Ultrasound Med 2013 Jun;32(6):923-927.408
  33. Diagnostic algorithm: how to make use of new 2D, 3D and 4D ultrasound technologies in breast imaging. Eur J Radiol 2007 Nov;64(2):250-257.
  34. 3D and 4D breast ultrasound. In: Merz E, editor. Ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology Vol 2: Gynecology. Stuttgart, New York: Thieme; 2007.
  35. Three-dimensional sonographic study of breast nodules. J Ultrasound 2007 Jun;10(2):93-98.
  36. Breast sonography— 2D, 3D, 4D ultrasound or elastography? Breast Care (Basel) 2011;6(2):98-103.
  37. Image guidance using 3D-ultrasound (3D-US) for daily positioning of lumpectomy cavity for boost irradiation. Radiat Oncol 2011 May;6:45.
  38. Improved breast cancer detection in asymptomatic women using 3D-automated breast ultrasound in mammographically dense breasts. Clin Imaging 2013 May-Jun;37(3):480-486.
  39. Surface reconstruction of a fetus (28+2 GW) using HDlive technology. Ultraschall Med 2012 Jun;33(3):211-212.
  40. The application of threedimensional ultrasound to nuchal translucency measurement in early pregnancy (10-14 weeks): a preliminary study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2000 Feb;15(2):122-125.
  41. Nuchal translucency-screening using 2D and 3D ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2003 Sep;22(Suppl 1):13.
  42. Three-dimensional ultrasonographic presentation of micrognathia. J Ultrasound Med 2002 Jul;21(7):775-781.
  43. Biometric measurements of the fetal corpus callosum by three-dimensional ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013 May 6. [Epub ahead of print].
  44. Threedimensional ultrasound evaluation of the fetal brain: the three horn view. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2000 Sep;16(4):302-306.
  45. The assessment of fetal brain morphology and circulation by transvaginal 3D sonography and power Doppler. J Perinat Med 2002;30(1):48-56.
  46. Two-and three-dimensional sonographic assessment of the fetal face. 2. Analysis of cleft lip, alveolus and palate. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2004 Sep;24(4):402-411.
  47. Foetal facial clefts: prenatal evaluation of lip and primary palate by 2D and 3D ultrasound. Ultraschall Med 2004 Apr;25(2):120-125.
  48. Ultrasound antenatal diagnosis of cleft palate by a new technique: the 3D ‘reverse face’ view. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005 Jan;25(1):12-18.
  49. Evaluation of normal and abnormal lips in fetuses: comparison between three-and two-dimensional sonography. Am J Roentgenol 1995 Nov;165(5):1233-1237.
  50. Craniofacial dysmorphology and three-dimensional ultrasound: a prospective study on practicability for prenatal diagnosis. Prenat Diagn 2003 Oct;23(10):810-818.
  51. A diagnostic approach for the evaluation of spina bifida by three-dimensional ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 2002 Jun;21(6):619-626.
  52. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal ambiguous gender using 3-D sonography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1999 Mar;13(3):217-219.
  53. Value of the electronic scalpel (cut mode) in the evaluation of the fetal face. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2000 Nov;16(6):564-568.
  54. Three-dimensional sonographic visualization of fetal skeleton in the second trimester of pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2000;49(1):12-16.
  55. Use of three-dimensional ultrasound imaging in the diagnosis of prenatal-onset skeletal dysplasias. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2003 May;21(5):467-472.
  56. Accuracy of 3D sonographic volume measurements. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;168:348.
  57. Accuracy of three-dimensional ultrasonography in volume estimation of cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1997 Jul;66(1):89-93.
  58. The role of three-dimensional ultrasound in the assessment of congenital uterine anomalies. Donald School J Ultrasound in Obstet Gynecol 2012;6(4):415-423.
  59. Control of intrauterine device insertion with three-dimensional ultrasound: is it the future? J Clin Ultrasound 1996 Jun;24(5):263-267.
  60. Three-dimensional ultrasound detection of abnormally located intrauterine contraceptive devices which are a source of pelvic pain and abnormal bleeding. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009 Jul;34(1):110-115.
  61. Automated threedimensional coded contrast imaging hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography: feasibility in office tubal patency testing. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013 Mar;41(3):328-335.
  62. Three-dimensional hysterosonography versus hysteroscopy for the detection of intracavitary uterine abnormalities. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2007 Apr:97(1):6-9.
  63. Diagnosis of levator avulsion injury: a comparison of three methods. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012 Dec;40(6):693-698.
  64. Pelvic floor ultrasonography: an update. Minerva Ginecol 2013 Feb;65(1):1-20.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.