This article reviews the merits of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound and thereby establishes its clinical and research role in reproductive medicine. Its main clinical applications include the assessment for uterine anomalies and intrauterine pathology, especially, if combined with the procedure of saline infusion into the uterine cavity. Moreover, 3D color Doppler sonography is an exciting research tool for the evaluation of endometrial receptivity, ovarian reserve, and polycystic ovaries.
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