Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Register      Login

VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2009 ) > List of Articles


3D/4D Volumetry in the Second and Third Trimester of Pregnancy

Keywords : Three-dimensional ultrasound,prenatal diagnosis

Citation Information : 3D/4D Volumetry in the Second and Third Trimester of Pregnancy. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009; 3 (2):18-24.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1011

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-03-2010

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2009; The Author(s).


Purpose of the review

The technological improvements have greatly progressed on three-dimensional ultrasonography. This review summarizes these technical changes and the latest advances of their use in prenatal diagnosis.

Material and methods

Review of the literature.


The new technical aspects of the volumetry, improvement of different render modes, the postprocessing modalities, and innovations on volume calculations are extensively described, as well as detailed, organ based diagnosis of different malformations in the second and third trimester are summarized.


Though the traditional 2D ultrasound with high resolution provides a great diagnostic tool in detection of fetal malformations, there is no doubt that the 3D/4D technique offers a new power in prenatal diagnosis. Three-dimensional ultrasound can assist in the diagnosis of different, rare malformations because it offers a potential benefit of understanding spatial relationships of normal and abnormal fetal anatomy.

PDF Share
  1. Three-dimensional ultrasound with maximal mode rendering: A novel technique for the diagnosis of bilateral or unilateral abscence or hypoplasia of nasal bones in secondtrimester screening for Down syndrome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;25:19-24.
  2. Frontomaxillary facial angle in screening for trisomy 21 at 11+0 to 13+6 weeks. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;32:5-11.
  3. Metopic suture in fetuses with Apert syndrome at 22-27 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006;27:28-33.
  4. Prenatal assessment of the normal fetal soft palate by three-dimensional ultrasound examination: Is there an objective technique? Ultrasound obstet Gynecol 2008;31:652-56.
  5. Prenatal ultrasound findings of lissencephaly associated with Miller-Dieker syndrome and comparison with pre- and postnatal magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2004;24:716-23.
  6. Visualization of the fetal fontanels and skull sutures by three-dimensional translabial ultrasound during the second stage of labor. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;31:484-86.
  7. Sonographic examination of the fetal central nervous system: Guidelines for performing the “basic examination” and the “fetal neurosonogram”. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007;29:109-16.
  8. New Scoring Sytem for fetal neurobehavior assessed by three- and four-dimensional sonography. J Perinat Med 2008;36:73-81.
  9. Fetal brain imaging: A comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and dedicated neurosonography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2004;23:333-40.
  10. Prenatal diagnosis of malformations of cortical development by dedicated neurosonography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007;29:178-91.
  11. Is fetal magnetic resonance imaging superior to neurosonography for detection of brain anomalies? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2002;20:317-21.
  12. Current 3D/4D ultrasound technology in prenatal diagnosis. Eur Clinics Obstet Gynecol 2006; DOI 10.1007/s11296-005-0005-6.
  13. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1997;9:222-28.
  14. Threedimensional transvaginal neurosonography of the fetal brain: “Navigating” in the volume scan. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2000;16:307-13.
  15. Normal and abnormal development of the fetal anterior fontanelle: A three-dimensional ultrasound study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;DOI:10.1002/uog.5368.
  16. Diagnosis of midline anomalies of the fetal brain with the three-dimensional median view. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006;27:522-29.
  17. Assessment of the corpus callosum at 20-24 weeks’ gestation by three-dimensional ultrasound examination. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007;30:169-72.
  18. Frontomaxillary facial angle in screening for trisomy 21 at 11+0 to 13+6 weeks: effect of plane of aquisition. Ultrasound Obstetrics Gynecol 2007;29:660-65.
  19. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007;DOI:10.1002/uog.3946.
  20. Semin Ultrasound CT MRI 2008;29:147-55.
  21. The fetal cerebellar vermis: Anatomy and biometric assessment using volume contrast imaging in the C-plane (VCI-C). Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;26:622-27.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.