Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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VOLUME 17 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Embryonic and Early Fetal Abnormalities Diagnosed with Three-dimensional Ultrasound in the First Trimester

Eberhard Merz, Sonila Pashaj

Keywords : Fetal malformations, First trimester, Four-dimensional ultrasound, Prenatal diagnosis, Three-dimensional ultrasound

Citation Information : Merz E, Pashaj S. Embryonic and Early Fetal Abnormalities Diagnosed with Three-dimensional Ultrasound in the First Trimester. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2023; 17 (3):202-216.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1987

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 30-09-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Compared to two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography, three-dimensional (3D)/four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound allows the examiner and the parents-to-be to visualize normal embryonic and early fetal development in a completely new way. In particular, with a high-resolution transvaginal 3D/4D probe in the 3D surface mode, important anatomical details can already be seen in the first trimester, just like in a photo. With 4D sonography, movements of the embryo/fetus can also be detected without motion artifacts. As part of a targeted early diagnosis of malformations, the experienced operator can already detect a certain number of larger defects, which means that clinical consequences can be drawn much earlier. Likewise, in the event of a risk of recurrence of a certain malformation, a normal finding can be convincingly demonstrated to the expectant parents at an early stage. Nevertheless, it must be taken into account, however, that various fetal malformations cannot yet be detected in the first trimester even with 3D sonography, which is why a further targeted malformation examination in the 2nd trimester cannot be dispensed with.

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