Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Register      Login

VOLUME 17 , ISSUE 1 ( January-March, 2023 ) > List of Articles


From Structure to Function of Fetal Brain: A Long Journey

Asim Kurjak, Milan Stanojevic, Aida Salihagic Kadic, Panos Antsaklis, Edin Medjedović, Sanja Tomasovic

Keywords : Cerebral palsy, Kurjak's antenatal neurobehavioral test, Prenatal neurology, Structure and function of fetal brain

Citation Information : Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, Kadic AS, Antsaklis P, Medjedović E, Tomasovic S. From Structure to Function of Fetal Brain: A Long Journey. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2023; 17 (1):11-35.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1962

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 14-04-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Understanding the structure and function of the fetal nervous system has been the dream of physicians for centuries. The pioneering efforts of Ian Donald in obstetric ultrasound (US) in the latter part of the 20th century have permitted this dream to become a reality. The initial contribution of obstetric US focused on normal and abnormal structures. Initially, anencephaly was described and followed by increasingly subtle central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities such as agenesis of the corpus callosum. The current and evolving challenge for investigators in obstetric US is to have similar success with the understanding of fetal neurological function. There are many functional neurological abnormalities, such as cerebral palsy (CP), whose causes are poorly understood. There are also an escalating number of results illustrating that a large presence of neurological problems, such as minimal cerebral dysfunction, schizophrenia, epilepsy, or autism, upshot at least in part from prenatal neurodevelopmental problems. Clinical and epidemiological studies have revealed that CP most often results from prenatal rather than perinatal or postnatal causes. Currently, although momentous advances in prenatal and perinatal care, there are no means to identify or expect the development of these disorders. Therefore, the development of diagnostic strategies to avoid and condense the saddle of perinatal brain damage has to turn into one of the most imperative tasks of contemporary perinatal medicine. The application of the new neurobehavioral test Kurjak's antenatal neurobehavioral test (KANET) might improve our understanding of prenatal neurodevelopmental events and possibly antenatal detection of CP and other neurological diseases.

  1. Salihagic-Kadic A, Kurjak A, Medic M, et al. New data about embryonic and fetal neurodevelopment and behavior obtained by 3D and 4D sonography. J Perinat Med 2005;33(6):478–490. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2005.086
  2. Pomeroy SL, Voipe JJ. Development of the nervous system. In: Polin RA, Fox, WW (eds). Fetal and neonatal physiology. Philadelphia-London-Toronto-Montreal-Sydney-Tokyo: WB Saunders Copmany 1992;1491–1509.
  3. O'Rahilly R, Muller F. Minireview: summary of the initial development of the human nervous system. Teratology 1999;60(1):39–41. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9926(199907)60:1<39::AID-TERA11>3.0.CO;2-I
  4. Kostovic I, Judas M, Petanjek Z, et al. Ontogenesis of goal-directed behavior: anatomo-functional considerations. Int J Psychophysiol 1995;19(2):85–102. DOI: 10.1016/0167-8760(94)00081-o
  5. Kurjak A, Stanojević M, Antsaklis P. From structure to function: a long Journey. In: Kurjak A, ed. Fetal Brain Functioning. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers 2022:1–39.
  6. Schaher S. Determination and differentiation in the development of the nervous system. In: Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, eds. Principles of Neural Science 2nd ed. New York: Elsevier Science Publishing 1985:730–732.
  7. Kostovic I. Prenatal development of nucleus basalis complex and related fiber systems in man: a histochemical study. Neuroscience 1986;17(4):1047–1077. DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(86)90077-1
  8. Okado N. Onset of synapse formation in the human spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 1981;201(2):211–219. DOI: 10.1002/cne.902010206
  9. Kostovic I. Zentralnervensystem. In: Hinrichsen KV, ed. Humanembryologie. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990: 381–448.
  10. Prechtl HF. Ultrasound studies of human fetal behaviour. Early Hum Dev 1985;2(2):91–98. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(85)90173-2
  11. Ianniruberto A, Tajani E. Ultrasonographic study of fetal movements. Semin Perinatol 1981;5(2):175–181. PMID: 7323822.
  12. Goto S, Kato TK. Early movements are useful for estimating the gestational weeks in the first trimester of pregnancy. In: Levski RA, Morley P, eds. Ultrasound ’82. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1983:577–582.
  13. Joseph R. Fetal brain behavior and cognitive development. Dev Rev 1999;20(1):81–98. DOI: 10.1006/drev.1999.0486
  14. de Vries JI, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. The emergence of fetal behaviour. I. Qualitative aspects. Early Hum Dev 1982:7(4):301–322. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(82)90033-0
  15. Kostovic I, Rakic P. Development of prestriate visual projections in the monkey and human fetal cerebrum revealed by transient cholinesterase staining. J Neurosci 1984;4(1):25–42. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.04-01-00025.1984
  16. D'Elia A, Pighetti M, Moccia G, et al. Spontaneous motor activity in normal fetuses. Early Hum Dev 2001;65(2):139–147. DOI: 10.1016/s0378-3782(01)00224-9
  17. Prechtl HF, Einspieler C. Is neurological assessment of the fetus possible? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1997;75(1):81–84. DOI: 10.1016/s0301-2115(97)00197-8
  18. Roodenburg PJ, Wladimiroff JW, van Es A, et al. Classification and quantitative aspects of fetal movements during the second half of normal pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1991:25(1):19–35. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(91)90203-f
  19. Prechtl HF. Qualitative changes of spontaneous movements in fetus and preterm infant are a marker of neurological dysfunction. Early Hum Dev 1990;23(3):151–158. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(90)90011-7
  20. Kurjak A, Azumendi G, Vecek N, et al. Fetal hand movements and facial expression in normal pregnancy studied by four-dimensional sonography. J Perinat Med 2003:31(6):496–508. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2003.076
  21. Andonotopo W, Stanojevic M, Kurjak A, et al. Assessment of fetal behavior and general movements by four-dimensional sonography. Ultrasound Rev Obstet Gynecol 2004:4(2):103–114. DOI: 10.1080/14722240400016895
  22. Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, Azumendi G, et al. The potential of four-dimensional (4D) ultrasonography in the assessment of fetal awareness. J Perinat Med 2005;33(1):46–53. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2005.008
  23. Kurjak A, Pooh RK, Carrera JM, et al. Structural and functional early human development assessed by three-dimensional (3D) and four dimensional (4D) sonography. Fertil Steril 2005;84(5):1285–1299. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.03.084
  24. Kurjak A, Miskovic B, Andonotopo W, et al. How useful is 3D and 4D ultrasound in perinatal medicine. J Perinat Med 2007;35(1):10–27. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2007.002
  25. Andonotopo W, Medic M, Salihagic-Kadic A, et al. The assessment of embryonic and fetal neurodevelopment in early pregnancy: comparison between 2D and 4D sonographic scanning. J Perinat Med 2005:33(5):406–414. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2005.073
  26. Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, Andonotopo W, et al. Fetal behavior assessed in all three trimesters of normal pregnancy by four-dimensional ultrasonography. Croat Med J 2005;46(5):772–780. PMID: 16158470.
  27. Pooh RK, Ogura T. Normal and abnormal fetal hand positioning and movement in early pregnancy detected by three- and four-dimensional ultrasound. Ultrasound Rev Obset Gynecol 2004:4(1):46–51. DOI: 10.3109/14722240410001700249
  28. Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, Andonotopo W, et al. Behavioral pattern continuity from prenatal to postnatal life-a study by four-dimensional (4D) ultrasonography. J Perinat Med 2004;32(4):346–353. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2004.065
  29. Andonotopo W, Kurjak A, Kosuta MI. Behavior of anencephalic fetus studied by 4D sonography. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2005:17(2):165–168. DOI: 10.1080/14767050400028717
  30. Andonopo W, Kurjak A. The assessment of fetal behavior of growth restricted fetuses by 4D sonography. J Perinat Med 2006;34(6):471–478. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2006.092
  31. Kurjak A, Andonotopo W, Hafner T, et al. Normal standards for fetal neurobehavioural developments -longitudinal quantification by four-dimensional sonography. J Perinat Med 2006;34(1):56–65. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2006.007
  32. Kurjak A, Azumendi G, Andonotopo W, et al. Three- and four-dimensional ultrasonography for the structural and functional evaluation of the fetal face. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;196(1):16–28. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.090
  33. Walusinski O, Kurjak A, Andonotopo W, et al. Fetal yawning assessed by 3D and 4D sonography. Ultrasound Rev Obstet Gynecol 2005;5(3):210–217. DOI: 10.3109/14722240500284070
  34. Seme-Ciglenečki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of high-risk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003;44(6):721–727.
  35. Einspieler C, Prechtl HF, Ferrari F, et al. The qualitative assessment of general movements in preterm, term and young infants-review of the methodology. Early Hum Dev 1997;50(1):47–60. DOI: 10.1016/s0378-3782(97)00092-3
  36. Cioni G, Prechtl HFR, Ferrari F, et al. Which better predicts later outcome in full term infants: quality of general movements or neurological examination? Early Hum Dev 1997;50(1):71–85. DOI: 10.1016/s0378-3782(97)00094-7
  37. Ferrari F, Cioni G, Einspieler C, et al. Cramped synchronized general movements in preterm infants as an early marker for cerebral palsy. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002;156(5):460–467. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.156.5.460
  38. Prechtl HFR. State of the art of a new functional assessment of the young nervous system. An early predictor of cerebral palsy. Early Hum Dev 1997;50(1):1–11. DOI: 10.1016/s0378-3782(97)00088-1
  39. Kurjak A, Jackson D (eds.) An atlas of Three- and Four-Dimensional Sonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Taylor & Francis Group: London, 2004.
  40. Sarnat HB. Anatomic and physiologic correlates of neurologic development in prematurity. In: Sarnat HB (ed.) Topics in neonatal neurology. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1984:1–24.
  41. Sarnat HB. Functions of the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts in the human newborns. J Pediatr Neurol 2003;1(1):3–8.
  42. Amiel-Tison C. Update of the Amiel-Tison Neurological assessment for the term neonate or at 40 weeks corrected age. Pediatr Neurol 2002;27(3):196–212. DOI: 10.1016/s0887-8994(02)00436-8
  43. Amiel-Tison C. Clinical assessment of the infant nervous system. In: Levente MI, Chervenak FA and Whittle M (eds.) Fetal and Neonatal Neurology and Neurosurgery. 3rd ed. Churchill Livingstone: London, 2001:99–120.
  44. Salisbury AL, Duncan Fallone M, Lester B. Neurobehavioral assessment from fetus to infant: the NICU network neurobehavioral scale and the fetal neurobehavioral coding system. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2005;11(1):14–20. DOI: 10.1002/mrdd.20058
  45. de Vries JIP, Visser GHA, Prechtl HFR. Fetal motility in the first half of pregnancy. In: Prechtl HFR (ed.) Continuity of neural functions from prenatal to postnatal life. Clin Dev Med 94 Oxford, Blackwell, 1984:46–63.
  46. Kostović I, Seress L, Mrzljak L, et al. Early onset of synapse formation in the human hippocampus: a correlation with Nissl-Golgi architectonics in 15- and 16.5-week-old fetuses. Neuroscience 1989;30(1):105–116. DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(89)90357-6
  47. Mutch L, Alberman E, Hagberg B, et al. Cerebral palsy epidemiology: where are we now and where are we going? Dev Med Child Neurol 1992;34(6):547–551. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1992.tb11479.x
  48. Bax M, Goldstein M, Rosenbaum P, et al. Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy, April 2005. Dev Med Child Neurol 2005;47(8):571–576. DOI: 10.1017/s001216220500112x
  49. Sankar C, Mundkur N. Cerebral palsy-definition, classification, etiology and early diagnosis. Indian J Pediatr 2005;72(10): 865–868. DOI: 10.1007/BF02731117
  50. Shapiro BK. Cerebral palsy: a reconceptualization of the spectrum. J Pediatr 2004;145(2 Suppl):S3–S7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.05.014
  51. Amiel-Tison C, Gosselin J, Infante-Rivard C. Head growth and cranial assessment at neurological examination in infancy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2002;44(9):643–648. DOI: 10.1017/s0012162201002699
  52. Pooh RK, Pooh K, Nakagawa Y, et al. Clinical application of three-dimensional ultrasound in fetal brain assessment. Croat Med J. 2000;41:245–251. PMID: 10962041.
  53. Campbell S, Lees C, Moscoso G, et al. Ultrasound antenatal diagnosis of cleft palate by a new technique: the 3D “reverse face” view. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;25(1):12–18. DOI: 10.1002/uog.1819
  54. DiPietro JA. Neurobehavioral assessment before birth. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2005;11(1):4–13. DOI: 10.1002/mrdd.20047
  55. Yigiter AB, Kavak ZN. Normal standards of fetal behavior assessed by four-dimensional sonography. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2006;19(11):707–721. DOI: 10.1080/14767050600924129
  56. Gosselin J, Gahagan S, Amiel-Tison C. The Amiel-Tison neurological assessment at term: conceptual and methodological continuity in the course of follow-up. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2005;11(1):34–51. DOI: 10.1002/mrdd.20049
  57. Rees S, Harding R. Brain development during fetal life: influences of the intra-uterine environment. Neurosci Lett 2004;361(1–3):111–114. DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2004.02.002
  58. Kurjak A, Carrera JM, Stanojevic M, et al. The role of 4D sonography in the neurological assessment of early human development. Ultrasound Rev Obstet Gynecol 2004;4(3): 148–159. DOI: 10.3109/14722240400017075
  59. Eidelman AI. The living fetus e dilemmas in treatment at the edge of viability. In: Blazer S, Zimmer EZ, editors. The embryo: scientific discovery and medical ethics. Basel: Karger; 2005:351e70.
  60. Stanojevic M, Zaputovic S, Bosnjak AP. Continuity between fetal and neonatal neurobehavior. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2012;17(6):324–329. DOI: 10.1016/j.siny.2012.06.006
  61. Haak P, Lenski M, Hidecker MJ, et al. Cerebral palsy and aging. Dev Med Child Neurol 2009;51(Suppl 4):16–23. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03428.x
  62. Einspieler C, Prechtl HF. Prechtl's assessment of general movements: a diagnostic tool for the functional assessment of the young nervous system. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2005;11(1):61–67. DOI: 10.1002/mrdd.20051
  63. Moster D, Wilcox AJ, Vollset SE, et al. Cerebral palsy among term and postterm births. JAMA 2010;304(9):976–982. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2010.1271
  64. Almli CR, Ball RH, Wheeler ME. Human fetal and neonatal movement patterns: gender difference and fetal-to-neonatal continuity. Dev Psychobiol 2001;38(4):252–273. DOI: 10.1002/dev.1019
  65. DiPietro JA, Bronstein MH, Costigan KA, et al. What does fetal movement predict about behavior during the first two years of life? Dev Phych 2002;40(4):358–371. DOI: 10.1002/dev.10025
  66. DiPetro JA, Hodson DM, Costigan KA, et al. Fetal antecedents of infant temperament. Child Dev 1996;67(5):2568–2583. DOI: 10.2307/1131641
  67. DiPietro JA, Costigan KA, Pressman EK. Fetal state concordance predicts infant state regulation. Early Hum Dev 2002;68(1):1–13. DOI: 10.1016/s0378-3782(02)00006-3
  68. Thoman EB, Denenberg VH, Sievel J, et al. State organization in neonate: developmental inconsistency indicates risk for developmental dysfunction. Neuropediatrics 1981;12(1):45–54. DOI: 10.1055/s-2008-1059638
  69. St James-Roberts I, Menon-Johansson P. Predicting infant crying from fetal movement data: an exploratory study. Early Hum Dev 1999;54(1):55–62. DOI: 10.1016/s0378-3782(98)00084-x
  70. de Vries JI, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. The emergence of fetal behaviour. II. Quantitative aspects. Early Hum Dev 1985;12(2):99–120. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(85)90174-4
  71. de Vries JI, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. The emergence of fetal behaviour. III. Individual differences and consistencies. Early Hum Dev 1988;16(1):85–103. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(88)90089-8
  72. Nijhuis JG, ed. Fetal Behaviour: Developmental and Perinatal aspects. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 1992
  73. Kurjak A, Antsaklis P, Stanojevic M, et al. Fetal behavior assessed by four-dimensional sonography. Donald Sch J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017;11(2):146–168. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1516
  74. Stanojevic M, Talic A, Miskovic B, et al. An attempt to standardize Kurjak's Antenatal Neurodevelopmental Test: Osaka consensus statement. Donald Sch J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011;5(4):317–329. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1209
  75. Kurjak A, Antsaklis P. 4D in functional studies of the fetus. Donald Sch J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019;13(1):23–33. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1582
  76. Kurjak A, Tikvica A, Stanojevic M, et al. The assessment of fetal neurobehavior by three-dimensional and four-dimensional ultrasound. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2008;21(10):675–684. DOI: 10.1080/14767050802212166
  77. Kurjak A, Miskovic B, Stanojevic M, et al. New scoring system for fetal neurobehavior assessed by three- and four-dimensional sonography. J Perinat Med 2008;36(1):73–81. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2008.007
  78. Kurjak A, Luetic AT. Fetal neurobehavior assessed by three-dimensional/four dimensional sonography. Zdrav Vestn 2010;79(11):790–799.
  79. Miskovic B, Vasilj O, Stanojevic M, et al. The comparison of fetal behavior in high risk and normal pregnancies assessed by four dimensional ultrasound. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2010;23(12):1461–1467. DOI: 10.3109/14767051003678200
  80. Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, et al. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011;24(7):948–954. DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2010.534830
  81. Talic A, Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, et al. The assessment of fetal brain function in fetuses with ventriculomegaly: the role of the KANET test. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012;25(8):1267–1272. DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2011.634463
  82. Honemeyer U, Kurjak A. The use of KANET test to assess fetal CNS function. First 100 cases. 10th World Congress of Perinatal Medicine 8-11 November 2011. Uruguay. Poster presentation P209
  83. Lebit DF, Vladareanu PD. The role of 4D ultrasound in the assessment of fetal behaviour. Maedica (Buchar) 2011;6(2):120–127. PMID: 22205894.
  84. Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, et al. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012;25(3):231–236. DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2011.568552
  85. Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high-risk pregnancies. Donald Sch J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012;6(2):132–147. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1235
  86. Honemeyer U, Talic A, Therwat A, et al. The clinical value of KANET in studying fetal neurobehavior in normal and at-risk pregnancies. J Perinat Med 2013;41(2):187–197. DOI: 10.1515/jpm-2011-0251
  87. Kurjak A, Talic A, Honemeyer U, et al. Comparison between antenatal neurodevelopmental test and fetal doppler in the assessment of fetal well being. J Perinat Med 2013;41(1):107–114. DOI: 10.1515/jpm-2012-0018
  88. Predojević M, Talić A, Stanojević M, et al. Assessment of motoric and hemodynamic parameters in growth restricted fetuses - case study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014;27(3):247–251. DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2013.807241
  89. Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, et al. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013;26(4):363–368. DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2012.695824
  90. Neto RM, Kurjak A. Recent results of the clinical application of KANET test. Donald Sch J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(20):420–425. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1429
  91. Neto RM. KANET in Brazil: first experience. Donald Sch J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):1–5. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1384
  92. Hanaoka U, Hata T, Kananishi K, et al. Does ethnicity have an effect on fetal behavior? A comparison of Asian and Caucasian populations. J Perinat Med 2016;44(2):217–221. DOI: 10.1515/jpm-2015-0036
  93. Antsaklis P, Porovic S, Daskalakis G, et al. 4D assessment of fetal brain function in diabetic patients. J Perinat Med 2017;45(6):711–715. DOI: 10.1515/jpm-2016-0394
  94. Pooh RK, Pooh K. Assessment of fetal central nervous system. Donald Sch J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013;7(4):369–384. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1308
  95. Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Abo-Yaquab S, et al. An attempt to introduce neurological test for fetus based on 3D and 4D sonography. Donald Sch J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;2(4):29–44. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1076
  96. Kuno A, Akiyama M, Yamashiro C, et al. Three-dimensional sonographic assessment of fetal behavior in the early second trimester of pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med 2001;20(12):1271–1275. DOI: 10.7863/jum.2001.20.12.1271
  97. Koyanagi T, Horimoto N, Maeda H, et al. Abnormal behavioral patterns in the human fetus at term: correlation with lesion sites in the central nervous system after birth. J Child Neurol 1993;8(1):19–26. DOI: 10.1177/088307389300800103
  98. Kurjak A, Abo-Yaqoub S, Stanojevic M, et al. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal neurobehavior–multicentric study in high-risk pregnancies. J Perinat Med 2010;38(1):77–82. DOI: 10.1515/jpm.2010.012
  99. Stanojevic M, Antsaklis P, Panchal S, et al. A critical appraisal of Kurjak antenatal neurodevelopmental test: five years of wide clinical used. Donald Sch J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021;14(4):304–310. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1669
  100. Hepper PG. Fetal behavior: why so skeptical? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1996:8:145–148.
  101. Greenwood C, Newman S, Impey L, et al. Cerebral palsy and clinical negligence litigation: a cohort study. BJOG 2003;110(1):6–11. DOI: 10.1046/j.1471-0528.2003.02095.x
  102. Strijbis EM, Oudman I, van Essen P, et al. Cerebral palsy and the application of the international criteria for acute intrapartum hypoxia. Obstet Gynecol 2006;107(6):1357–1365. DOI: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000220544.21316.80
  103. de Vries JI, Fong BF. Changes in fetal motility as a result of congenital disorders: an overview. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007;29(5):590–599. DOI: 10.1002/uog.3917
  104. de Vries JI, Fong BF. Normal fetal motility: an overview. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006;27(6):701–711. DOI: 10.1002/uog.2740
  105. Rosier-van Dunné FM, van Wezel-Meijler G, Bakker MP, et al. General movements in the perinatal period and its relation to echogenicity changes in the brain. Early Hum Dev 2010;86(2):83–86. DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2010.01.023
  106. Velde A, Morgan C, Novak I, et al. Early diagnosis and classification of cerebral palsy: an historical perspective and barriers to an early diagnosis. J Clin Med 2019;8(10):1599. DOI: 10.3390/jcm8101599
  107. Novak I, Morgan C, Adde L, et al. Early, accurate diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy: advances in diagnosis and treatment. JAMA Pediatr 2017;171:897–900. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.1689
  108. Romeo DM, Cioni M, Palermo F, et al. Neurological assessment in infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2013;17:192–198. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2012.09.006
  109. Kwong AK, Eeles AL, Olsen JE, et al. The Baby Moves smartphone app for general movements assessment: engagement amongst extremely preterm and term-born infants in a state-wide geographical study. J Paediatr Child Health 2019;55(5):548–554. DOI: 10.1111/jpc.14240
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.