Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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VOLUME 16 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2022 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Volume Ultrasound in Infertility

Sonal Panchal

Keywords : Duplication abnormalities, Endometrial volume, Sono AVC, Submucosal fibroids, Three-dimensional hystero-salpingo contrast sonography, Three-dimensional sonohysterography

Citation Information : Panchal S. Volume Ultrasound in Infertility. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022; 16 (4):312-328.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1949

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 26-12-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

Introduction: Volume ultrasound (US) is an important complementary addition to the brightness (B) mode and Doppler transvaginal assessment of the reproductive organs in patients presenting with fertility problems. It has an important role in pretreatment assessment and also the monitoring of the treatment cycles and decision-making on the treatment protocols. Discussion points: Three-dimensional (3D) US is a modality of choice for differential diagnosis of Mullerian abnormalities. When used with Doppler and saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS), 3D US may almost eliminate the need for diagnostic hysteroscopy. It can be used to confidently diagnose polyps, hyperplasia, synechiae, chronic endometritis (CE), etc., all endometrial pathologies. A 3D US is considered a modality, at par with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), for the assessment of endometrio-myometrial junction and so for the diagnosis of adenomyosis. It also enables the documentation of endometrial invasion in adenomyosis. In cases with submucosal fibroids, it is the 3D US that allows a clear assessment of the extent of endometrial invasion or distortion. The 3D US also has a role in uterine scar and cervical assessment. A 3D hystero-salpingo contrast sonography (HyCoSy) is an excellent modality for the assessment of tubal patency. Virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) and sonography-based automated volume count (SonoAVC) are volume calculation software and are very useful for the assessment of ovarian volume, stromal volume, follicular, and endometrial volume, and for the accurate calculation of antral follicle count (AFC). When combined with power, Doppler can give a precise assessment of the global vascularity of these structures that can be all used to improve the assisted reproductive technology (ART) results. A 3D US can also be used to predict and diagnose the complications of ART, like ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and ectopic pregnancies.


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