Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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VOLUME 16 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Adnexal Masses

Zorancho Petanovski, Emilija Petanovska Kostova

Keywords : Ectopic pregnancy, Fallopian tube inflammatory disease, Positive pregnancy test, Transvaginal two-dimensional/three-dimensional ultrasound examination

Citation Information : Petanovski Z, Kostova EP. Adnexal Masses. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022; 16 (4):304-311.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1947

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 26-12-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Fallopian tube inflammatory disease and tubal pregnancy are closely related. Inflammatory disease of the fallopian tubes leads to the inability for fertilization of the oocyte when the fallopian tube is completely closed; it also makes the path difficult for the gamete to transfer into the uterine cavity. The possibility of ectopic pregnancy is rising as a result of deformity and reduced mobility of the fallopian tubes. Most ectopic pregnancies occur in the fallopian tubes and rarely in other structures. It used to be difficult to diagnose an ectopic pregnancy, but now with two-dimensional (2D)/three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound and serum β human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), the diagnosis is easy, and women with an ectopic pregnancy should no longer be in a situation where this pathological situation is a life-threatening diagnosis. Noninvasive transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) 2D/3D examination provides an opportunity for rapid selection of patients and candidates for direct laparoscopic (LPSC) access at the first examination in “everyday” practice. Due to the increased use of high-resolution TVU, around 80% of ectopic pregnancies are diagnosed on time, without severe abdominal hemorrhage. TVU identification of an adnexal mass, empty uterine cavity, and positive pregnancy test are the gold standard for diagnosis.

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