Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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VOLUME 16 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Investigation of Cardiac Remodeling and Cardiac Function on Fetuses with Growth Restriction: A Review

Maria Papamichail, Panos Antsaklis, Asim Kurjak, Lara Spalldi Barisic, Edin Medjedović, Sanja Malinac Malojčić

Keywords : Cardiac morphology, Cardiac morphometry, Growth restriction

Citation Information : Papamichail M, Antsaklis P, Kurjak A, Barisic LS, Medjedović E, Malojčić SM. Investigation of Cardiac Remodeling and Cardiac Function on Fetuses with Growth Restriction: A Review. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022; 16 (2):124-137.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1928

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 05-07-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined as failure to reach full growth potential in utero and in clinical routine, it is translated as estimated fetal weight (EFW) below the 10th percentile, according to the growth charts. FGR affects 7–10% of pregnancies and it is responsible for the vast majority of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Moreover, FGR is considered as a risk factor for long-term infirmities such as motor skills disorders, cognitive, memory, and neuropsychological impairment, immune disorders, and metabolic syndrome. Importantly, there is an increasing pool of data, suggesting that individuals who as fetuses suffered from FGR, are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood, namely hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and stroke. Changes in cardiac function and cardiac morphology can be assessed prenatally and especially according to the severity of FGR.

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