Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Register      Login

VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2021 ) > List of Articles

CASE SERIES

Fetal Cholelithiasis: A Case Series of Antenatal Sonographic Diagnosis with Review of Literature

Amandeep Singh, Priya Kapahi, Abhiraj Kakkar, Gauravdeep Singh

Keywords : Echogenic foci, Fetal cholelithiasis, Fetal gall bladder

Citation Information : Singh A, Kapahi P, Kakkar A, Singh G. Fetal Cholelithiasis: A Case Series of Antenatal Sonographic Diagnosis with Review of Literature. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021; 15 (4):407-410.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1815

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 31-12-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; The Author(s).


Abstract

Aim and objective: To evaluate the antenatal diagnosis of fetal cholelithiasis with postnatal outcome. Background: Fetal cholelithiasis and/or echogenic sludge in the gallbladder is an infrequent ultrasonographic finding seen as echogenic material with or without posterior acoustic shadowing. Fetal cholelithiasis is most commonly seen during the third trimester of pregnancy. In the majority of cases, fetal cholelithiasis/sludge shows spontaneous resolution within a few months of postnatal life. But, it is very important to assure that echogenic foci are present inside the gallbladder lumen to rule out other causes of right upper quadrant echogenicities. Use of 3-dimensional (3D) scan can aid in the diagnosis of fetal cholelithiasis. Case description: Through this case series, four cases of fetal cholelithiasis were followed up in their postnatal period to evaluate the outcome. Clinical significance: A case of fetal cholelithiasis should be followed for an adequate time frame before thinking on the grounds of surgical management. Conclusion: Unlike adult cholelithiasis, fetal cholelithiasis shows a benign course with self-resolution.


PDF Share
  1. Clarke JP, Roman JD. The outcome of two cases of fetal cholelithiasis. N Z Med J 1994;107(981):270. DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-123840
  2. Stringer MD, Lim P, Cave M, et al. Fetal gallstones. J Pediatr Surg 1996;31(11):1589–1591. DOI:10.1016/s0022-3468(96)90189-x
  3. Troyano-Luque J, Padilla-Pérez A, Martínez-Wallin I, et al. Short and long term outcomes associated with fetal cholelithiasis: a report of two cases with antenatal diagnosis and postnatal follow-up. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2014;2014:1–5. DOI: 10.1155/2014/714271
  4. Moon MH, Cho JY, Kim JH, et al. In utero development of the fetal gall bladder in the Korean population. Korean J Radiol 2008;9(1):54–58. DOI:10.3348/kjr.2008.9.1.54
  5. Albay S, Malas MA, Koyuncu E, et al. Morphometry of the gallbladder during the fetal period. Surg Radiol Anat 2010;32(4):363–369. DOI:10.1007/s00276-009-0574-z
  6. Devonald KJ, Ellwood DA, Colditz PB. The variable appearances of fetal gallstones. J Ultrasound Med 1992;11(11):579–585. DOI: 10.7863/jum.1992.11.11.579
  7. Kiserud T, Gjelland K, Bognø H, et al. Echogenic material in the fetal gallbladder and fetal disease. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1997;10(2):103–106. DOI: 10.1046/j.1469-0705.1997.10020103.x
  8. Agnifili A, Verzaro R, Carducci G, et al. Fetal cholelithiasis: a prospective study of incidence, predisposing factors, and ultrasonographic and clinical features. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1999;38(6):371–373. DOI: 10.1177/000992289903800610
  9. Müller R, Döhmann S, Kordts U. Fetale Gallenblase und Gallensteine. Ultraschall Med 2000;21(3):142–144. DOI: 10.1055/s-2000-3796
  10. Cancho Candela R, Díaz González J, Perandones Fernández C, et al. Material ecogénico en vesícula biliar fetal: diagnóstico prenatal y seguimiento posnatal. An Pediatr (Barc) 2004;61(4):326–329. DOI: 10.1157/13066429
  11. Iroh Tam PY, Angelides A. Perinatal detection of gallstones in siblings. Am J Perinatol 2010;27(10):771–774. DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1254239
  12. Abbitt PL, McIlhenny J. Prenatal detection of gallstones. J Clin Ultrasound 1990;18(3):202–204. DOI: 10.1002/jcu.1870180313
  13. Brown DL, Teele RL, Doubilet PM, et al. Echogenic material in the fetal gallbladder: sonographic and clinical observations. Radiology 1992;182:73–76. DOI: 10.1148/radiology.182.1.1727312
  14. Lariviere M, Having K, Bullock S. Fetal Cholelithiasis. J Diagn Med Sonography 2006;22:403–406. DOI: 10.1177/8756479306295829
  15. Sepulveda W, Stagiannis KD. Echogenic material in the fetal gallbladder in a surviving monochorionic twin. Pediatr Radiol 1996;26(2):129–130. DOI: 10.1007/BF01372091
  16. Triunfo S, Rosati P, Ferrara P, et al. Fetal cholelithiasis: a diagnostic update and a literature review. Clin Med Insights Case Rep 2013;6:153–158. DOI: 10.4137/CCRep.S12273
  17. Hertzberg BS, Kliewer MA. Fetal gallstones in a contracted gallbladder: potential to simulate hepatic or peritoneal calcification. J Ultrasound Med 1998;17(10):667–670. DOI: 10.7863/jum.1998.17.10.667
  18. Holloway S, Edwards H. Antenatal diagnosis of fetal cholelithiasis. Ultrasound 2010;18(3):152–154. DOI: 10.1258/ULT.2010.010017
  19. Moore KL: The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology, 3rd edition. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1982. DOI: 10.1002/AJHB.1310050420
  20. Hata K, Aoki S, Hata T, et al. Ultrasonographic identification of the human fetal gallbladder in utero. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1987;23(2):79–83. DOI: 10.1159/000298839
  21. Goldstein R, Callen P. Ultrasound evaluation of the fetal thorax and abdomen. In: Callen P (Ed). Ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2nd edition. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1988. pp. 207–239.
  22. Wei J, Haller J, Rachlin S, et al. Sonographic evaluation of the fetal gallbladder in utero: incidence of visualization and morphology. J Diagn Med Sonography 1993;9(6):291–296. DOI: 10.1177/875647939300900602
  23. Tanaka Y, Senoh D, Hata T. Is there a human fetal gallbladder contractility during pregnancy?Hum Reprod 2000;15(6):1400–1402. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/15.6.1400
  24. Joupilla P, Heikkinen J, Kirkinen P. Contractility of maternal and fetal gallbladder: an ultrasonic study. J Clin Ultrasound 1985;13(7):461–464. DOI: 10.1002/jcu.1870130705
  25. Beretsky I, Lankin DH. Diagnosis of fetal cholelithiasis using real-time high-resolution imaging employing digital detection. J Ultrasound Med 1983;2(8):381–383. DOI:10.7863/jum.1983.2.8.381
  26. Fanaroff AA, Martin RJ, Miler MJ. Identification and management of high-risk problems in the neonate. In: Creasy RK, Resnik R (Eds). Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Principles and Practice, 2nd edition, Volume 2. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 1989: pp. 1176–1179.
  27. Suchet IB, Labatte MF, Dyck CS, et al. Fetal cholelithiasis: a case report and review of the literature. J Clin Ultrasound 1993;21:198-202. DOI:10.1002/jcu.1870210309
  28. Hurni Y, Vigo F, von Wattenwyl BL, et al. Fetal Cholelithiasis: Antenatal diagnosis and neonatal follow-up in a case of twin pregnancy - a case report and review of the literature. Ultrasound Int Open 2017;3(1):E8–E12. DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-123840.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.