Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Register      Login

VOLUME 12 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2018 ) > List of Articles

EDITORIAL

Current Status and Future Prospects of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Perinatal Medicine

Katika Nawapun, Nisarat Phithakwatchara, Tuangsit Wataganara, Kriengkrai Iemsawatdikul, Preeyacha Pacharn, Suparat Jaingam

Keywords : Fetal magnetic resonance imaging, Fetal neuroimaging, Fetal therapy, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Placental perfusion

Citation Information : Nawapun K, Phithakwatchara N, Wataganara T, Iemsawatdikul K, Pacharn P, Jaingam S. Current Status and Future Prospects of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Perinatal Medicine. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2018; 12 (2):89-93.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1556

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-06-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; The Author(s).


Abstract

Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important adjuvant to high-quality ultrasound once fetal structural anomaly is identified. There are recently developed advanced techniques such as provision of volumetric data, spectroscopy, and functional MRI. Changes in local susceptibility caused by blood breakdown products, echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences [i.e., diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)] are especially sensitive to hemorrhage and edema. These novel sequences are particularly useful for assessment of fetal ischemic and hemorrhagic brain lesions. Prenatal MRI has been increasingly adopted in assessment and follow-up after in utero surgeries of twin–twin transfusion syndrome, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, lower urinary tract obstruction, and myelomeningocele. Development of guidelines to better define the role of fetal MRI in relation to prenatal diagnostic ultrasound can reduce the variation of sequence protocols, magnetic field intensity, as well as the use of gadolinium performed in different centers. Novel sequences may be used for research purposes, but safety concerns of obstetric MRI cannot be overlooked. The current utilities and future prospects of MRI in perinatal medicine are updated in this article.


PDF Share
  1. Gagnon A, Genetics C. Evaluation of prenatally diagnosed structural congenital anomalies. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2009 Sep;31(9):875-881.
  2. Platt LD, Barth RA, Pugash D. Current controversies in prenatal diagnosis 3: Fetal MRI should be performed in all prenatally detected fetuses with a major structural abnormality. Prenat Diagn 2018 Feb;38(3):166-172.
  3. Wataganara T, Ebrashy A, Aliyu LD, Moreira de Sa RA, Pooh R, Kurjak A, Sen C, Adra A, Stanojevic M. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. J Perinat Med 2016 Jul 1;44(5):533-542.
  4. Dietrich O, Geith T, Reiser MF, Baur-Melnyk A. Diffusion imaging of the vertebral bone marrow. NMR Biomed 2017 Mar;30(3).
  5. Wataganara T. Foetal magnetic resonance imaging. In: Studd J, Tan S, Chervenak F, eds. Current progress in obstetrics & gynecology, Vol. 4. Maharashtra: Tree Life Media; 2017. pp. 168-191.
  6. Prayer D, Malinger G, Brugger PC, Cassady C, De Catte L, De Keersmaecker B, Fernandes GL, Glanc P, Gonçalves LF, Gruber GM, et al. ISUOG Practice Guidelines: performance of fetal magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017 May;49(5):671-680.
  7. Benkarim OM, Hahner N, Piella G, Gratacos E, González Ballester MA, Eixarch E, Sanroma G. Cortical folding alterations in fetuses with isolated non-severe ventriculomegaly. Neuroimage Clin 2018 Jan 28;18:103-114.
  8. Rossi AC, Prefumo F. Additional value of fetal magnetic resonance imaging in the prenatal diagnosis of central nervous system anomalies: a systematic review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2014 Oct;44(4):388-393.
  9. Denison FC, Macnaught G, Semple SIK, Terris G, Walker J, Anblagan D, Serag A, Reynolds RM, Boardman JP. Brain development in fetuses of mothers with diabetes: a casecontrol MR imaging study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 May;38(5):1037-1044.
  10. Wataganara T. Fetal malformations detected with magnetic resonance imaging in diabetic mother. In: Hod M, Jovanovic L, Di Renzo G, De Leiva A, Langer O, eds. Textbook of diabetes and pregnancy. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group;2016. pp. 351-361.
  11. Weisz B, Hoffmann C, Ben-Baruch S, Yinon Y, Gindes L, Katorza E, Shrim A, Bar Yosef O, Schiff E, Lipitz S. Early detection by diffusion-weighted sequence magnetic resonance imaging of severe brain lesions after fetoscopic laser coagulation for twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2014 Jul;44(1):44-49.
  12. Garel C, Delezoide AL, Elmaleh-Berges M, Menez F, Fallet- Bianco C, Vuillard E, Luton D, Oury JF, Sebag G. Contribution of fetal MR imaging in the evaluation of cerebral ischemic lesions. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2004 Oct;25(9):1563-1568.
  13. Prayer D, Brugger PC, Kasprian G, Witzani L, Helmer H, Dietrich W, Eppel W, Langer M. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions. Eur J Radiol 2006 Feb;57(2):233-249.
  14. Benoist G, Salomon LJ, Mohlo M, Suarez B, Jacquemard F, Ville Y. Cytomegalovirus-related fetal brain lesions: comparison between targeted ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008 Dec;32(7):900-905.
  15. Brunelle F. Brain vascular malformations in the fetus: diagnosis and prognosis. Childs Nerv Syst 2003 Aug;19(7-8):524-528.
  16. Pugash D, Krssak M, Kulemann V, Prayer D. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the fetal brain. Prenat Diagn 2009 Apr;29(4):434-441.
  17. Yoshida S, Oishi K, Faria AV, Mori S. Diffusion tensor imaging of normal brain development. Pediatr Radiol 2013 Jan;43(1):15-27.
  18. Mitter C, Jakab A, Brugger PC, Ricken G, Gruber GM, Bettelheim D, Scharrer A, Langs G, Hainfellner JA, Prayer D, et al. Validation of in utero tractography of human fetal commissural and internal capsule fibers with histological structure tensor analysis. Front Neuroanat 2015 Dec 24;9:164.
  19. Brossard-Racine M, Limperopoulos C. Normal cerebellar development by qualitative and quantitative mr imaging: from the fetus to the adolescent. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 2016 Aug;26(3):331-339.
  20. Thomason ME, Scheinost D, Manning JH, Grove LE, Hect J, Marshall N, Hernandez-Andrade E, Berman S, Pappas A, Yeo L, et al. Weak functional connectivity in the human fetal brain prior to preterm birth. Sci Rep 2017 Jan 9;7:39286.
  21. Benachi A, Cordier AG, Cannie M, Jani J. Advances in prenatal diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2014 Dec;19(6):331-337.
  22. Nawapun K, Sandaite I, Dekoninck P, Claus F, Richter J, De Catte L, Deprest J. Comparison of matching by body volume or gestational age for calculation of observed to expected total lung volume in fetuses with isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2014 Dec;44(6):655-660.
  23. Cannie MM, Cordier AG, De Laveaucoupet J, Franchi-Abella S, Cagneaux M, Prodhomme O, Senat MV, Mokhtari M, Vlieghe V, Nowakowska D, et al. Liver-to-thoracic volume ratio: use at MR imaging to predict postnatal survival in fetuses with isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia with or without prenatal tracheal occlusion. Eur Radiol 2013 May;23(5): 1299-1305.
  24. Oka Y, Rahman M, Sasakura C, Waseda T, Watanabe Y, Fujii R, Makinoda S. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal respiratory function: evaluation of fetal lung maturity using lung-to-liver signal intensity ratio at magnetic resonance imaging. Prenat Diagn 2014 Dec;34(13):1289-1294.
  25. Vuletin JF, Lim FY, Cnota J, Kline-Fath B, Salisbury S, Haberman B, Kingma P, Frischer J, Crombleholme T. Prenatal pulmonary hypertension index: novel prenatal predictor of severe postnatal pulmonary artery hypertension in antenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg 2010 Apr;45(4):703-708.
  26. Victoria T, Johnson AM, Adzick NS, Hedrick HL, Shellock FG. Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging safety and imaging issues associated with the occlusion balloon used during fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion. Fetal Diagn Ther 2017 Oct 5.
  27. Pico H, Dabadie A, Bourliere-Najean B, Philip N, Capelle M, Aschero A, Quarello E, Guys JM, Hery G, Petit P, et al. Contribution of the foetal uro-MRI in the prenatal diagnosis of uronephropathies. Diagn Interv Imaging 2014 Jun;95(6):573-578.
  28. Alamo L, Laswad T, Schnyder P, Meuli R, Vial Y, Osterheld MC, Gudinchet F. Fetal MRI as complement to US in the diagnosis and characterization of anomalies of the genito-urinary tract. Eur J Radiol 2010 Nov;76(2):258-264.
  29. Faure A, Panait N, Panuel M, Alessandrini P, D'Ercole C, Chaumoitre K, Merrot T. Predicting postnatal renal function of prenatally detected posterior urethral valves using fetal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient determination. Prenat Diagn 2017 Jul;37(7):666-672.
  30. Savelli S, Di Maurizio M, Perrone A, Tesei J, Francioso A, Angeletti M, La Barbera L, Ballesio L, de Felice C, Porfiri LM, et al. MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) assessment in the evaluation of normal and abnormal fetal kidneys: preliminary experience. Prenat Diagn 2007 Dec;27(12):1104-1111.
  31. Bulas D. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism. Pediatr Radiol 2010 Jun;40(6):1029-1037.
  32. Aaronson OS, Hernanz-Schulman M, Bruner JP, Reed GW, Tulipan NB. Myelomeningocele: prenatal evaluation– comparison between transabdominal US and MR imaging. Radiology 2003 Jun;227(3):839-843.
  33. Danzer E, Johnson MP. Fetal surgery for neural tube defects. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2014 Feb;19(1):2-8.
  34. Adzick NS, Thom EA, Spong CY, Brock JW 3rd, Burrows PK, Johnson MP, Howell LJ, Farrell JA, Dabrowiak ME, Sutton LN, et al. A randomized trial of prenatal versus postnatal repair of myelomeningocele. N Engl J Med 2011 Mar 17;364(11):993-1004.
  35. Chao TT, Dashe JS, Adams RC, Keefover-Hicks A, McIntire DD, Twickler DM. Fetal spine findings on MRI and associated outcomes in children with open neural tube defects. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2011 Nov;197(5):W956-W961.
  36. Watanabe M, Li H, Kim AG, Weilerstein A, Radu A, Davey M, Loukogeorgakis S, Sánchez MD, Sumita K, Morimoto N, et al. Complete tissue coverage achieved by scaffold-based tissue engineering in the fetal sheep model of Myelomeningocele. Biomaterials 2016 Jan;76:133-143.
  37. Wataganara T, Ngerncham S, Kitsommart R, Fuangtharnthip P. Fetal neck myofibroma. J Med Assoc Thai 2007 Feb;90(2): 376-380.
  38. Shrot S, Johnson CT, Golden WC, Baschat AA, Bullard JE, Tekes A, Poretti A, Dunn E, Huisman TAGM. Persistent extreme hyperextension of the fetal neck: clinical and neuroimaging findings. J Neuroimaging 2018 May;28(3):278-282.
  39. Jauniaux E, Bhide A. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis and outcome of placenta previa accreta after cesarean delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jul;217(1):27-36.
  40. Familiari A, Liberati M, Lim P, Pagani G, Cali G, Buca D, Manzoli L, Flacco ME, Scambia G, D'antonio F. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting the severity of abnormal invasive placenta: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2018 May;97(5):507-520.
  41. Valentini AL, Gui B, Ninivaggi V, Miccò M, Giuliani M, Russo L, Marini MG, Tintoni M, Cavaliere AF, Bonomo L. The morbidly adherent placenta: when and what association of signs can improve MRI diagnosis? Our experience. Diagn Interv Radiol 2017 May-Jun;23(3):180-186.
  42. Slator PJ, Hutter J, McCabe L, Gomes AD, Price AN, Panagiotaki E, Rutherford MA, Hajnal JV, Alexander DC. Placenta microstructure and microcirculation imaging with diffusion MRI. Magn Reson Med 2018 Aug;80(2):756-766.
  43. Nye GA, Ingram E, Johnstone ED, Jensen OE, Schneider H, Lewis RM, Chernyavsky IL, Brownbill P. Human placental oxygenation in late gestation: experimental and theoretical approaches. J Physiol 2018 Jan 26.
  44. Rodriguez-Soto AE, Langham MC, Abdulmalik O, Englund EK, Schwartz N, Wehrli FW. MRI quantification of human fetal O2 delivery rate in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Magn Reson Med 2018 Sep;80(3):1148-1157.
  45. Sweeney S, Adamcakova-Dodd A, Thorne PS, Assouline JG. Multifunctional nanoparticles for real-time evaluation of toxicity during fetal development. PLoS One 2018 Feb 8;13(2): e0192474.
  46. Weisstanner C, Gruber GM, Brugger PC, Mitter C, Diogo MC, Kasprian G, Prayer D. Fetal MRI at 3T-ready for routine use? Br J Radiol 2017 Jan;90(1069):20160362.
  47. Cannie MM, De Keyzer F, Van Laere S, Leus A, de Mey J, Fourneau C, De Ridder F, Van Cauteren T, Willekens I, Jani JC. Potential heating effect in the gravid uterus by using 3-T MR imaging protocols: experimental study in miniature pigs. Radiology 2016 Jun;279(3):754-761.
  48. Patenaude Y, Pugash D, Lim K, Morin L, Lim K, Bly S, Butt K, Cargill Y, Davies G, Denis N, et al. The use of magnetic resonance imaging in the obstetric patient. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2014 Apr;36(4):349-363.
  49. Barth R, Victoria T, Kline-Fath B, Estroff J, Society for Pediatric Radiology Fetal Imaging Committee. ISUOG Guidelines for fetal MRI: a response to 3-T fetal imaging and limited fetal exams. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017 Dec;50(6):804-805.
  50. Ray JG, Vermeulen MJ, Bharatha A, Montanera WJ, Park AL. Association between MRI exposure during pregnancy and fetal and childhood outcomes. JAMA 2016 Sep 6;316(9):952-961.
  51. Bouyssi-Kobar M, du Plessis AJ, Robertson RL, Limperopoulos C. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: exposure times and functional outcomes at preschool age. Pediatr Radiol 2015 Nov;45(12):1823-1830.
  52. Committee on Obstetric Practice. Committee Opinion No. 723: Guidelines for diagnostic imaging during pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct;130(4):e210-e216.
  53. Malinger G, Lev D, Lerman-Sagie T. Is fetal magnetic resonance imaging superior to neurosonography for detection of brain anomalies? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2002 Oct;20(4):317-321.
  54. Salomon LJ, Sonigo P, Ou P, Ville Y, Brunelle F. Real-time fetal magnetic resonance imaging for the dynamic visualization of the pouch in esophageal atresia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;34(4):471-474.
  55. Hochart V, Verpillat P, Langlois C, Garabedian C, Bigot J, Debarge VH, Sfeir R, Avni FE. The contribution of fetal MR imaging to the assessment of oesophageal atresia. Eur Radiol 2015 Feb;25(2):306-314.
  56. Verbruggen SW, Kainz B, Shelmerdine SC, Hajnal JV, Rutherford MA, Arthurs OJ, Phillips AT, Nowlan NC. Stresses and strains on the human fetal skeleton during development. J R Soc Interface 2018 Jan;15(138):20170593.
  57. Nott JP, Pervolaraki E, Benson AP, Bonney EA, Pickering JD, Wilkinson N, Simpson N. Diffusion tensor imaging determines three-dimensional architecture of human cervix: a cross-sectional study. BJOG 2018 Jun;125(7):812-818.
  58. Day Baird D, Dunson DB, Hill MC, Cousins D, Schectman JM. High cumulative incidence of uterine leiomyoma in black and white women: ultrasound evidence. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003 Jan;188(1):100-107.
  59. Ciarmela P, Islam MS, Reis FM, Gray PC, Bloise E, Petraglia F, Vale W, Castellucci M. Growth factors and myometrium: biological effects in uterine fibroid and possible clinical implications. Hum Reprod Update 2011 Nov-Dec;17(6): 772-790.
  60. Islam MS, Protic O, Stortoni P, Grechi G, Lamanna P, Petraglia F, Castellucci M, Ciarmela P. Complex networks of multiple factors in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma. Fertil Steril 2013 Jul;100(1):178-193.
  61. Lacey CG. Benign disorders of the uterine corpus. In: Pernoll ML, editor. Current obstetric and gynaecologic diagnosis and treatment. 7th ed. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange; 1991. pp. 732-738.
  62. Clevenger-Hoeft M, Syrop CH, Stovall DW, Van Voorhis BJ. Sonohysterography in premenopausal women with and without abnormal bleeding. Obstet Gynecol 1999 Oct;94(4): 516-520.
  63. Flake G, Andersen J, Dixon D. Etiology and pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas: a review. Environ Health Perspect 2003 Jun;111(8):1037-1054.
  64. Kupesic Plavsic S, Kurjak A, Baston K. Color Doppler and 3D ultrasound of the uterine lesions. In: Kupesic Plavsic S, editor. Color Doppler, 3D and 4D ultrasound in gynecology, infertility and obstetrics. New Delhi, India: Jaypee Publisher; 2011. pp. 22-32.
  65. Munro MG, Critchley HO, Broder MS, Fraser IS. The FIGO Classification System (“PALM-COEIN”) for causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in non-gravid women in the reproductive years, including guidelines for clinical investigation. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2011 Apr;113(1):3-13.
  66. Wamsteker K, Emanuel MH, de Kruif JH. Transcervical hysteroscopic resection of submucosal fibroids for abnormal uterine bleeding: results regarding the degree of intramural extension. Obstet Gynecol 1993 Nov;82(5):736-740.
  67. Practice committee of AAGL. AAGL Practice Report: Practice Guidelines for the diagnosis and Management of submucosal leiomyomas. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2012 Mar-Apr;19(2):152-171.
  68. Parker WH, Fu YS, Berek JS. Uterine sarcoma in patients operated on for presumed leiomyoma and rapidly growing leiomyoma. Obstet Gynecol 1994 Mar;83(3):414-418.
  69. Leibsohn S, d'Ablaing G, Mishell DR Jr, Schlaerth JB. Leiomyosarcoma in a series of hysterectomies performed for presumed uterine leiomyomas. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990 Apr;162(4):968-974.
  70. Islam MS, Protic O, Giannubilo SR, Toti P, Tranquilli AL, Petraglia F, Castellucci M, Ciarmela P. Uterine leiomyoma: available medical treatments and new possible therapeutic options. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013 Mar;98(3):921-934.
  71. Ciarmela P, Ciavattini A, Giannubilo SR, Lamana P, Fiorini R, Tranquili AL, Christman GM, Castellucciu M. Management of leiomyomas in perimenopausal women. Maturitas 2014 Jul; 78(3):168-173.
  72. Soysal S, Soysal ME. The efficacy of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device in selected cases of myoma-related menorrhagia: a prospective controlled trial. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2005;59(1):29-35.
  73. Friedman AJ, Hoffman DI, Comite F, Browneller RW, Miller JD. Treatment of leiomyomata uteri with leuprolide acetate depot: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. The Leuprolide Study Group. Obstet Gynecol 1991 May;77(5):720-725.
  74. Fiscella K, Eisinger SH, Meldrum S, Feng C, Fisher SG, Guzick DS. Effect of mifepristone for symptomatic leiomyomata on quality of life and uterine size: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2006 Dec;108(6):1381-1387.
  75. Carbonell Esteve JL, Acosta R, Heredia B, Perez Y, Castaneda MC, Hernandez AV. Mifepristone for the treatment of uterine leiomyomas: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2008 Nov;112(5):1029-1036.
  76. Donnez J, Tatarchuk TF, Bouchard P, Puscasiu L, Zakharenko NF, Ivanova T, Ugocsai G, Mara M, Jilla MP, Bestel E, et al. Ulipristal acetate versus placebo for fibroid treatment before surgery. N Engl J Med 2012 Feb;366(5): 409-420.
  77. Ghezzi F, Cromi A, Bergamini V, Scarperi S, Bolis P, Franchi M. Midterm outcome of radiofrequency thermal ablation for symptomatic uterine myomas. Surg Endosc 2007 Nov;21(11): 2081-2085.
  78. Kanaoka Y, Yoshida C, Fukuda T, Kajitani K, Ishiko O. Transcervical microwave myolysis for uterine myomas assisted by transvaginal ultrasonic guidance. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2009 Feb;35(1):145-151.
  79. Stewart EA, Rabinovici J, Tempany CM, Inbar Y, Regan L, Gostout B, Hesley G, Kim HS, Hengst S, Gedroyc WM. Clinical outcomes of focused ultrasound surgery for the treatment of uterine fibroids. Fertil Steril 2006 Jan;85(1):22-29.
  80. Taran FA, Tempany CM, Regan L, Inbar Y, Revel A, Stewart EA. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) compared with abdominal hysterectomy for treatment of uterine leiomyomas. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009 Nov;34(5):572-578.
  81. Farquhar CM, Steiner CA. Hysterectomy rates in the United States 1990.1997. Obstet Gynecol 2002 Feb;99(2):229-234.
  82. Cicinelli E, Romano F, Anastasio PS, Blasi N, Parisi C, Galantino P. Transabdominal sonohysterography, transvaginal sonography, and hysteroscopy in the evaluation of submucous myomas. Obstet Gynecol 1995 Jan; 85(1):42-47.
  83. Furr BJA, Jordan VC. The pharmacology and clinical uses of Tamoxifen. Pharmacol Ther 1984;25(2):127-205.
  84. Barakat R. The effect of Tamoxifen on the endometrium. Oncology 1995 Feb;9(2):129-142.
  85. Ismail SM. Pathology of endometrium treated with tamoxifen. J Clin Pathol 1994 Sep;47(9):827-833.
  86. Neven P, De Muylder X, Van Belle Y, Vanderick G, De Muylder E. Tamoxifen and the uterus and endometrium. Lancet 1989 Feb; 1(8634):375.
  87. Kedar RP, Bourne TH, Powels TJ, Collins WP, Ashley SE, Cosgrove DO, Campbell S. Effects of tamoxifen on uterus and ovaries of postmenopausal women in a randomized breast cancer prevention trial. Lancet 1994 May;343(8909):1318-1321.
  88. Gardner FJ, Konje JC, Bell SC, Abrams KR, Brown LJ, Taylor DJ, Habiba M. Prevention of tamoxifen induced endometrial polyps using a levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system long-term follow-up of a randomized control trial. Gynecol Oncol 2009 Sep;114(3):452-456.
  89. Deligdisch L, Kalir T, Cohen CJ, de Latour M, le Bouedec G, Penault-Llorca F. Endometrial histopathology in 700 patients treated with tamoxifen for breast cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2000 Aug;78(2):181-186.
  90. Cohen I. Endometrial pathologies associated with postmenopausal tamoxifen treatment. Gynecol Oncol 2004 Aug;94(2):256.
  91. Runowicz CD, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Cecchini RS, Cronin WM, Ford LG, Vogel VG, Wolmark N. Gynecologic conditions in participants in the NSABP breast cancer prevention study of tamoxifen and raloxifene (STAR). Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011 Dec;205(6):535.e1-5.
  92. Fisher B, Costantino JP, Redmond CK, Fisher ER, Wickerham DL, Cronin WM. Endometrial cancer in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients: findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-14. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994 Apr;86(7):527-537.
  93. van Leeuwen FE, Benraadt J, Coebergh JWW, Kiemeney LA, Gimbrere CH, Otter R, Schouten LJ, Damhuis RA, Bontenbal M, Diepenhorst FW, et al. Risk of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen treatment of breast cancer. Lancet 1994 Feb;343(8895):448-452.
  94. Deligdisch L, Kalir N, Cohen CJ, de Latour M, Le Bouedec G, Penault-Llorca F. Endometrial histopathology in 700 patients treated with tamoxifen for breast cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2000 Aug;78(2):181-186.
  95. Ryden S, Fermo M, Moller T. Long-term effects of adjuvant tamoxifen and/or radiotherapy. The South Sweden Breast Cancer Trial. Acta Oncol 1992;31(2):271-274.
  96. Cummings FJ, Gray R, Tormey DC, Davis TE, Volk H, Harris J, Falkson G, Bennett JM. Adjuvant tamoxifen versus placebo in elderly women with node-positive breast cancer: long-term follow-up and causes of death. J Clin Oncol 1993;11(1):29-35.
  97. Fotiou S, Hatjeleftheriou G, Kyrousis G, Kokka F, Apostolikas N. Long-term tamoxifen treatment: a possible aetiological factor in the development of uterine carcinosarcoma: two case-reports and review of the literature. Anticancer Res 2000 May;20(3B):2015-2020.
  98. Cohen R, Perel E, Flex E, Tepper R, Altaras MM, Cordoba M, Beyth Y. Endometrial pathologies in postmenopausal tamoxifen treatment: comparison between gynaecological symptomatic and gynaecological asymptomatic breast cancer patients. J Clin Pathol 1999 Apr;52(4):278-282.
  99. Cohen R, Azaria, J. Shapira, Yigael D, Tepper R. The significance of secondary ultrasonographic endometrial thickening in postmenopausal tamoxifen-treated women. Cancer 2002 Jun;94(12):3101-3106.
  100. El.bieta S, Tomasz K, Jacek J. The effects of tamoxifen on the female genital tract. Cancer Treat Rev 2004 May;30(3):291-301.
  101. Tamoxifen and uterine cancer. Committee Opinion No 601. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2014;123:1394-1397.
  102. Gerber B, Krause A, Muller H, Reimer T, Külz T, Makovitzky J, Kundt G, Friese K. Effects of adjuvant tamoxifen on the endometrium in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: a prospective long-term study using transvaginal ultrasound. J Clin Oncol 2000 Oct;18(20):3464-3470.
  103. Markovitch O, Tepper R, Aviram R, Fishman A, Shapira J, Cohen I. The value of sonohysterography in the prediction of endometrial pathologies in asymptomatic postmenopausal breast cancer tamoxifen-treated patients. Gynecol Oncol 2004 Sep;94(3):754-759.
  104. Berliere M, Radikov G, Galant C, Piette P, Marbaix E, Donnez J. Identification of women at high risk of developing endometrial cancer on tamoxifen. Eur J Cancer 2000 Sep;36(suppl 4): S35-S36.
  105. Vosse M, Renard F, Coibion M, Neven P, Nogaret JM, Hertens D. Endometrial disorders in 406 breast cancer patients on tamoxifen: the case for less intensive monitoring. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Feb;101(1):58-63.
  106. Chalas E, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, Lewis GC, Bergman C, Runowicz CD. Benign gynecologic conditions among participants in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005 Apr;192(4):1230-1237.
  107. Gallos ID, Shehmar M, Thangaratinam S, Papapostolou TK, Coomarasamy A, Gupta JK. Oral progestogens vs levonorgestrel releasingintrauterine system for endometrial hyperplasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010 Dec;203(6):547.e1-547.e10.
  108. Chan SS, Tam WH, Yeo W, Yu MMY, Ng DPS, Wong AWY, Kwan WH, Yuen PM. A randomised controlled trial of prophylactic levonorgestrel intrauterine system in tamoxifen-treated women. BJOG 2007 Dec;114(12):1510-1515.
  109. Gardner FJ, Konje JC, Bell SC, Abrams KR, Brown LJ, Taylor DJ, Habiba M. Prevention of tamoxifen induced endometrial polyps using a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterinesystem; long-term follow-up of a randomised control trial. Gynecol Oncol 2009 Sep;114(3):452-456.
  110. Dinger J, Bardenheuer K, Minh TD. Levonorgestrel-releasing and copper intrauterine devices and the risk of breast cancer. Contraception 2011 Mar;83(3):211-217.
  111. Stein RI, Leventhal M. Amenorrhea associated with bilateral polycystic ovaries. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1935;29:181-185.
  112. Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
  113. Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
  114. Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
  115. Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
  116. Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
  117. Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
  118. Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
  119. Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
  120. Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
  121. Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
  122. Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
  123. Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
  124. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
  125. Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
  126. Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
  127. Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
  128. Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
  129. O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
  130. Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
  131. Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
  132. Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
  133. Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.