Aris Antsaklis, Themos Grigoriadis, Sylvia-Christina Mylona, George Giannoulis, Stavros Athanasiou
Citation Information :
Antsaklis A, Grigoriadis T, Mylona S, Giannoulis G, Athanasiou S. Sonographic Evaluation of Obstetric Anal Injuries. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015; 9 (3):266-274.
Fecal and urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery with anal sphincter disruption in an obstetrics unit in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189(6):1549-1550.
Outcome of primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS): does the grade of tear matter? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010;36(3):368-374.
Methods of repair for obstetric anal sphincter injury: RHL commentary [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at: http://apps.who.int/rhl/pregnancy_childbirth/childbirth/perineal_trauma/ttcom2/en/
Third degree obstetric anal sphincter tears: risk factors and outcome of primary repair. BMJ 1994;308(6933):887-891.
Long-term ailments due to anal sphincter rupture caused by delivery—a hidden problem. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1988;27(1):27-32.
Anal sphincter function after delivery: a prospective study in women with sphincter rupture and controls. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1990;35(1):7-13.
A randomized clinical trial comparing primary overlap with approximation repair of third-degree obstetric tears. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183(5):1220-1224.
Obstetric sphincter tears and anal incontinence: an observational follow-up study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2003;82(10):921-928.
Prevalence of faecal incontinence in adults aged 40 years or more living in the community. Gut 2002;50(4):480-484.
A twisted tale. Clin Risk 2005;11(2):53-56.
; Martin, JA.; Ventura, SJ. Births: preliminary data for 2009 [Internet]. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr60/nvsr60_02.pdf.
Anal cushions. Lancet 1986;328(8497):42.
Pelvic floor anatomy and applied physiology. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2008 Sep;37(3):493-509.
Benign Anorectal Diseases: Diagnosis with Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasound and New Treatment Options. 1st ed. Italy: Springer; 2006. 424 p.
Anatomy and function of the anal longitudinal muscle. Br J Surg 1992;79(9):882-884.
Editorial: Obstetric perineal injury and anal incontinence. AVMA Med Legal J 1999;5(6):193-196.
Management of third- and fourth- degree perineal tears following vaginal delivery [Internet]. London; RCOG Press, 2007. Available at: https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg-29.pdf
; Christiansen, J.; Butler, U., et al. Anal incontinence. In: Abrams, P.; Cardozo, L.; Khoury, S., et al., editors. Incontinence. 2nd ed. Plymouth: Health Publication Ltd; 2002. p. 985-1044.
Episiotomy and third degree tears. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1985;92(8):820-823.
Episiotomies and the occurrence of severe perineal lacerations. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1994;101(12):1064-1067.
Third degree obstetric perineal tears: risk factors and the preventative role of mediolateral episiotomy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997;104(5):563-566.
Obstetric events leading to anal sphincter damage. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92(6):955-961.
Third degree obstetric perineal tear: long-term clinical and functional results after primary repair. Br J Surg 1998;85(10):1433-1438.
Third degree obstetric tears: outcome after primary repair. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1998;77(7):736-740.
Third degree anal sphincter tears: risk factors and outcome. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 1998; 38(4):414-417.
Primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter rupture using the overlap technique. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1999;106(4):318-323.
Anal sphincter tears: prospective study of obstetric risk factors. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2000; 107(7):926-931.
Preventing perineal trauma during childbirth: A systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95(3):464-471.
Third & fourth degree perineal tears: predictor factors in a referral hospital. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2001;80(3):229-234.
Risk factors for third degree perineal ruptures during delivery. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2001;108(4):383-387.
Influence of persistent occiput posterior position on delivery outcome. Obstet Gynecol 2001;98(6):1027-1031.
Risk factors for third degree perineal tears in a vaginal delivery with an analysis of episiotomy types. J Reprod Med 2001;46(8):752-756.
Risk factors associated with anal sphincter tear: a comparison of primiparous vaginal births after caesarean deliveries, and patients with previous vaginal delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;187(5):1194-1198.
A randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of delayed versus immediate pushing with epidural on mode of delivery and faecal continence. BJOG 2002;109(12):1359-1365.
Risk factors for perineal injury during delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189(1):255-260.
Trends in major risk factors for anal sphincter lacerations: a 10-year study. J Obstet Gynecol Can 2003;25(7):586-593.
Anal endosonography: technique and normal anatomy. Gastrointest Radiol 1989;14(4):349-353.
Anal endosonography and correlation with in vitro and in vivo anatomy. Br J Surg 1993;80(4):508-511.
Effect of second vaginal delivery on anorectal physiology and faecal continence: a prospective study. The Lancet 1999;345(9183):983-986.
Diagnosis of anal sphincter tears by postpartum endosonography to predict fecal incontinence. Obstet Gynecol 2000 May;95(5):643-647.
Can we improve the diagnosis of third degree tears? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002;101(1):19-21.
Obstetric perineal trauma: an audit of training. J Obstet Gynaecol 1995;15(1): 19-23.
The extent of endosonographic anal sphincter defects after primary repair of obstetric sphincter tears increases over time and is related to anal incontinence. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006 Feb;27(2):188-197.
An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female pelvic floor dysfunction. Int Urogynecol J 2010 Jan;21(1):5-26.
Is dynamic investigation of the anal sphincter complex useful for assessment of the anal sphincter complex? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008; 32(3):397.
Vaginal endosonography: a new technique to image the undisturbed anal sphincter. Dis Colon Rectum 1994; 37(12):1296-1299.
A prospective cohort study of women after primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter laceration. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181(6):1317-1322.
Simple ultrasound evaluation of the anal sphincter in female patients using a transvaginal transducer. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005 Feb;25(2):177-183.
Transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound: a method of studying anal anatomy and function. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011 Mar;37(3):353-360.
Vaginal endosonography of the anal sphincter complex is important in the assessment of faecal incontinence and perianal sepsis. Br J Surg 1998;85(3):359-363.
The utility of endovaginal sonography in the evaluation of fecal incontinence. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2005;97(5):317-322.
Exoanal ultrasound of the anal sphincter: normal anatomy and sphincter defects. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997 Sep;104(9): 999-1003.
Ultrasound imaging of the anal sphincter complex: a review. Br J Radiol 2012 Jul;85(1015):865-875.
Postpartum evaluation of the anal sphincter by transperineal three-dimensional ultrasound in primiparous females after vaginal delivery and following surgical repair of third-degree tears by the overlapping technique. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007; 29(2):195-204.
The prevalence of anal sphincter injury in primiparous women. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013;42(4):461-466.
Three-dimensional transperineal ultrasonography for evaluation of the anal sphincter complex: another dimension in understanding peripartum sphincter trauma. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006;27(2):119-123.
State of the art: an integrated approach to pelvic floor ultrasonography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011 Apr;37(4):381-396.
Mode of delivery after previous obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS)—a reappraisal? Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2009;20(9):1095-1101.
Risks of anal incontinence from subsequent vaginal delivery after a complete obstetric anal sphincter tear. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1992 Sep;99(9):724-726.
Anal and urinary incontinence in women with obstetric anal sphincter rupture. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1996 Oct;103(10):1034-1040.