Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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VOLUME 8 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2014 ) > List of Articles


The Role of 2D and 3D Ultrasound in Evaluation of Fetal Gastrointestinal Anomalies

Sanja Zaputovic, Sanja Kupesic Plavsic, Mallory K Hughes, Branko M Plavsic

Keywords : GI anomalies,Esophageal and duodenal atresia,Pyloric stenosis,Hirschsprung disease,Small bowel/anal/rectal atresia,Diaphragmatic hernia,Omphalocele and gastroschisis,2D and 3D ultrasound

Citation Information : Zaputovic S, Plavsic SK, Hughes MK, Plavsic BM. The Role of 2D and 3D Ultrasound in Evaluation of Fetal Gastrointestinal Anomalies. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2014; 8 (3):316-320.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1370

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-06-2015

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2014; The Author(s).



To evaluate the role of second mid-trimester ultrasound in prenatal detection of gastrointestinal (GI) fetal anomalies and compare the ultrasonographic findings with postnatal diagnosis.

Materials and methods

A 5-year retrospective study included 16,334 neonates delivered at a tertiary referral center. All neonates were evaluated by a second mid-trimester 2D ultrasound fetal anatomy scan. Patients with abnormal findings on 2D scan were also examined by 3D ultrasound. Postnatally confirmed GI anomalies were compared with prenatal ultrasound assessment of two sections of fetal abdomen which had analyzed the presence, size and position of the stomach, umbilical cord insertion and have assessed the amniotic fluid index (AFI).


Prenatal ultrasound revealed 28 out of 38 fetal GI anomalies (73.6%). All GI anomalies initially diagnosed with 2D ultrasound were confirmed by 3D ultrasound. The major advantage of multiplanar imaging was more comprehensive anatomical information about GI anomalies. Surface rendering provided additional information in evaluating fetuses with anterior abdominal wall defects.


Our data indicate that standard planes obtained by 2D ultrasound can rule out a majority of fetal GI anomalies. Assessment of AFI should be an integral part of prenatal ultrasound scan in detection of GI anomalies, particularly in GI obstruction.

How to cite this article

Stanojevic M, Hughes MK, Zaputovic S, Kupesic Plavsic S, Plavsic BM. The Role of 2D and 3D Ultrasound in Evaluation of Fetal Gastrointestinal Anomalies. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2014;8(3):316-320.

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