Role of Ultrasound in the Assessment of Postmenopausal Bleeding
3D power Doppler ultrasound,3D ultrasound,Atrophic endometrium,Cervical carcinoma,Color Doppler ultrasound,Endometrial carcinoma,Endometrial hyperplasia,Endometrial polyp,Postmenopausal bleeding,Saline infusion sonography,Ultrasonography,Uterine leiomyosarcoma
Citation Information :
Appleton K. Role of Ultrasound in the Assessment of Postmenopausal Bleeding. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012; 6 (2):197-206.
CC BY-NC 4.0
Copyright © 2012; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
How to cite this article
Appleton K, Plavsic SK. Role of Ultrasound in the Assessment of Postmenopausal Bleeding. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012;6(2):197-206.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding: Diagnostic approach and therapeutic options. Ultrasound Clinics 2010;5(2):245-46.
Investigation of abnormal uterine bleeding in postmenopausal women. In: Bradley: Hysteroscopy (1st ed). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Mosby 2008;115-30.
The role of transvaginal ultrasound or endometrial biopsy in the evaluation of the menopausal endometrium. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2009;201(1): 5-11.
Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound scanning for the prediction of endometrial cancer in women with postmenopausal bleeding and thickened endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;200(44):e1-6.
Cancer facts and figures 2011. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2011:22-23.
The woman with postmenopausal bleeding, Australian Family Physician 2007;36(3):116-20.
Vulvovaginal atrophy. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2010;85(1):87-94.
Incidence of endometrial hyperplasia. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2009;200(6):678e.1-e.6.
Endometrial hyperplasiathe dilemma of management remains: A retrospective observational study of 280 women. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2011;159(1):172-75.
Endometrial polyps and associated factors in Danish women aged 36-74 years. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2009;200(147):e1-6.
Diagnosis and management of endometrial polyps: A critical review of the literature. The Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology 2011;18:569-81.
Comparative study of transvaginal ultrasonographic and diagnostic hysteroscopic findings in postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen. Chinese Medical Journal 2011;124(15):2335-39.
Saline infusion sonohysterography. Ultrasound Clinics 2007;2(1):121-32.
Reproductive factors and postmenopausal hormone use in relation to endometrial cancer risk in the nurses’ health study cohort 1976-2004. International Journal of Cancer 2010;126(1):208-16.
The female genital tract. In: Robbins and Cotran pathological basis of disease, professional edition (8th ed). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Saunders 2009;22: 1034.
Predicting the risk of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women presenting with vaginal bleeding: The Norwich DEFAB risk assessment tool. British Journal of Cancer 2010;102(8):1201-06.
Global cancer statistics. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2011;61:69-81.
Human papilloma virus: Prevention and treatment. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 2008;35(2):199-201.
Herpes simplex virus-2 as a human papillomavirus cofactor in the etiology of invasive cervical cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2002; 94(21):1604-13.
Clinical approach to diagnosis and management of cancer of the cervix and vulva: Surgical pathology clinics. Elsevier 2011;4(1):1-4.
Retrospective analysis of 105 cases with uterine sarcoma. Bull Cancer 2008;95(3):E10-17.
Analysis of racial differences in incidence, survival and mortality for malignant tumors of the uterine corpus. Cancer 2003;98(1):176-86.
Sarcoma of the uterus. In: DeSaia: Clinical gynecologic oncology (7th ed). Pennsylvania: Mosby 2007;185-99.
The role of transvaginal ultrasound and sonohysterography in the evaluation of postmenopausal bleeding. Menopause: The Journal of the North American Menopause Society 2011;17(1):21-22.
The first-line investigation of postmenopausal bleeding: Transvaginal ultrasound scanning and endometrial biopsy may be enough. International Journal of Gynaecological Cancer 2009;19(5):892-95.
Diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding with imaging. Menopause: The Journal of the North American Menopause Society 2011;18(4):421-24.
Hysteroscopy and directed biopsy in the diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. Chinese Medical Journal 2010;123(24):3524-28.
Clinical pathway for the evaluation of postmenopausal bleeding with an emphasis on endometrial cancer detection. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2004;24(7):736-41.
Saline infusion sonohysterography. Ultrasound Clinics 2007;2:121-32.
Color Dopopler and 3D ultrasound of the uterine lesions. In: Kupesic Plavsic S (Ed). Color Doppler, 3D and 4D ultrasound in gynecology, Infertility and obstetrics. Jaypee Publisher: New Delhi 2011.
Sonographic endometrial thickness: A useful test to predict atrophy in patients with postmenopausal bleeding. An Italian multicenter study. Ultrasound of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1996;7:315-21.
Threedimensional ultrasound imaging for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness of at least 4.5 mm. Ultrasound of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2010;35:94-102.
Three-dimensional transvaginal sonography in local staging of cervical carcinoma: Description of a novel technique and preliminary results. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007;30: 778-82.
Transvaginal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of presence, size and extent of invasive cervical cancer. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009;24:335-44.
Can gray-scale and color Doppler sonography differentiate between uterine leiomyosarcoma and leiomyoma? Journal of Clinical Ultrasoun 2007;35(8):449-57.