Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2011 ) > List of Articles


Peri- and Postmenopausal Uterine Bleeding Transvaginal Ultrasound with Hysterosonography and Diagnostic Correlation with Hysteroscopy

Mandakini Parihar, Anand Parihar

Keywords : Abnormal uterine bleeding,Transvaginal sonography (TVS),Hysterosonography,Hysteroscopy

Citation Information : Parihar M, Parihar A. Peri- and Postmenopausal Uterine Bleeding Transvaginal Ultrasound with Hysterosonography and Diagnostic Correlation with Hysteroscopy. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011; 5 (4):343-352.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1212

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-09-2012

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2011; The Author(s).


The recent years have seen medical science and technology expand by leaps and bounds. We have shifted focus from correction of the problem to prevention of the problem. Abnormal uterine bleeding is an important cause of ill health in perimenopausal women. In the perimenopausal years, there is an increase in the incidence of bleeding irregularities. This is because of an increase in the prevalence of benign and malignant uterine lesions. There has also been a significant increase in the number of women presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. At transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS), the finding of a thickened central endometrial complex, with or without cystic changes, is often nonspecific and may be caused by an endometrial polyp, submucosal fibroid, endometrial hyperplasia, carcinoma or cystic atrophy. In addition, because of an increased prevalence of adenomyosis or adenomyosis-like changes in women around this age group, proper transvaginal sonographic assessment of endometrial thickness and abnormalities is of utmost importance but maybe difficult in some women.

When TVS cannot accurately measure the endometrial thickness or when there is a nonspecific thickened central endometrial complex, hysterosonography can provide additional information and can help in the diagnosis and final treatment. Hysterosonography, as an adjunct to TVS, allows identification of intracavitary lesions and focal and diffuse endometrial abnormalities and helps determine the abnormality. Final diagnosis confirmed by hysteroscopy. In this review, we discuss these common abnormalities and the correlation of TVS and hysterosonographic findings with hysteroscopic evaluation.

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