After the development of the new technologies and rendering modes, it became possible to acquire valuable diagnostic images of the female genital organs. There appear to be few differences in the diagnostic accuracy of standard 2D vs 3D images in detecting pelvic pathology, but 3D scanning can improve efficiency by reducing scanning time and therefore improving patient throughput. Furthermore, 3D ultrasound is able to rapidly acquire and store ultrasonographic data that can later be retrospectively analyzed with little loss of information. The most important advantage is the visualization of the coronal plane. It is therefore likely that the application of 3D ultrasound scanning will increase in the future for diagnostic purposes, particularly when the purchase cost of ultrasound equipment falls. The purpose of this review is to highlight the benefits of volume ultrasound in evaluation of uterine and tubal pathology.
Clinical utility of threedimensional Ultrasound. Radiographics 2000;20:559-71.
Gel instillation, a new technique for sonohysterography (GIS). Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 2006;28:359-411.
Normal pelvic blood flow. In: Kurjak A (Ed): Transvaginal Color Doppler. Park Ridge, NJ, Parthenon 1991;25.
Ovarian senescence and its significance on uterine and ovarian perfusion. Fertil Steril 1995;64:532.
Uterine and ovarian perfusion during the periovulatory period assessed by transvaginal color Doppler. Fertil Steril 1993;60:439.
Hum Reprod 1996;11:1951.
The relationships between endometrial thickness and blood flow and pregnancy rates in in vitro fertilization. Hum Reprod 1999;14:1967.
Quantifying the changes in endometrial vascularity throughout the normal cycle with three-dimensional power Doppler angiography. Hum Reprod 2004;19:330-38.
Assessment of changes in endometrial and subendometrial volume and vascularity during the normal menstrual cycle using three dimensional power Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006;27:672-79.
Comparison of 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional and vascular ultrasonographic parameters for endometrial receptivity between two consecutive stimulated in vitro fertilization cycles. J Ultrasound Med Jul 2007;26(7):931-39.
Are endometrial parameters by three-dimensional ultrasound and power Doppler angiography related to in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer outcome? Fertil Steril Jan 2008;89(1):111-17.
Ultrasound characteristics and histological dating of the endometrium in a natural cycle in infertile women compared with fertile controls. Fertil Steril 2006;86:1344-55.
Endometrial and subendometrial perfusion are impaired in women with unexplained subfertility. Hum Reprod 2004;19:2605-14.
Comparison of endometrial and subendometrial blood flow measured by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound between stimulated and natural cycles in the same patients. Hum Reprod 2004;19:2385-90.
Role of three-dimensional ultrasonographic measurement of endometrium volume as a predictor of pregnancy outcome in an IVF-ET program: A preliminary study. Fertil Steril 2000;74:797-801.
Evaluation of endometrial receptivity during in vitro fertilization using three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;26:765-76.
Assessment of endometrial receptivity by transvaginal color Doppler and threedimensional power Doppler ultrasonography in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization procedures. J Ultrasound Med 2001;20:125-34.
The role of endometrial and subendometrial blood flows measured by threedimensional power Doppler ultrasound in the prediction of pregnancy during IVF treatment. Hum Reprod 2006;21: 164-70.
Three-dimensional ultrasonographic ovarian measurements and in vitro fertilization outcome are related to age. Fertil Steril 2003;79:190-97.
Impact of subserosal and intramural uterine fibroids that do not distort the endometrial cavity on the outcome of in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril 2004;81:582.
Clinical implications of uterine malformations and hysteroscopic treatment results. Hum Reprod Update 2001;7:161-66.
Incidence of Müllerian defects in fertile and infertile women. Hum Reprod 1997;12:1372-75.
Can ultrasound be used to screen uterine malformations? Fertil Steril 1987;47:89-93.
Three-dimensional ultrasound in reproductive medicine. Ultrasound Rev Obstetr Gynecol 2005;5:304-15.
Detection of congenital müllerian duct anomalies using three-dimensional ultrasound. J Clin Ultrasound 1997;25:487-92.
Transvaginal ultrasonography of the cervix to predict preterm birth in women with uterine anomalies. Obstet Gynecol 2005;106(3):553-56.
Clinical implications of sonographic detection of uterine anomalies for reproductive outcome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2001;18:387-400.
Gel instillation sonohysterography: First experience with a new technique. Fertil Steril 2007;87:152-55.
Reproductibility of threedimensional ultrasound diagnosis of congenital uterine anomalies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2003;21:578-82.
Differential diagnosis of septate and bicornuate uterus by sonohysterography eliminates the need for laparoscopy. Fertil Steril 2002;78:176-78.
Septate uterus: Detection and prediction of obstetrical complications by different forms of ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 1998;17:631-36.
Müllerian duct anomalies: Imaging and clinical issues. Radiology 2004;233:19-23.
Transvaginal color flow Doppler in the assessment of ovarian and uterine blood flow in infertile women. Fertil Steril 1991;56:870-74.
Infertility and reproductive assistance. In: Neiberg DA, Hill LM, Bohm-Velez M, Mendelson EB (Eds). Transvaginal Ultrasound, St Louis, Mosby Year Book 1992.
Hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography compared with hysterosalpingography and laparoscopic dye perturbation to evaluate tubal patency. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 2003;10(3):367-72.
2D and 3D hysterosalpingo-contrastsonography in the assessment of uterine cavity and tubal patency. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2007;133:64-69.
Three-dimensional coded contrast imaging: A new ultrasound approach to evaluate tubal patency. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;32:308-97.
The sonographic evaluation of tubal patency with stimulated acoustic emission imagin. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2002;20:386-89.