Multiple pregnancies have a higher risk of both maternal and fetal prognosis. Accurate diagnosis of chorionicity and amnionicity plays an important role for optical perinatal management. In monochorionic pregnancies, there may be several unique pathological complications derived from vascular anastomoses on monochorionic placentation. Twin-twin transfusion, twin-reversed arterial perfusion sequence and single fetal demise have several issues on both perinatal prognosis and management. Recent investments of medical instruments have allowed intervention during prenatal period, such as fetoscopic laser photocoagulation of communicating vessels. These interventions provide more favorable perinatal prognosis. Another risk in multiple pregnancies is congenital anomaly, which is apparently higher than in singleton pregnancy. Therefore, detailed ultrasound examination is necessary for optical management.
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