The introduction of four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound techniques would facilitate fetal behavioral assessment in three-dimensions in realtime during pregnancy. We describe the latest 4D sonographic studies on fetal behavior, especially fetal whole-body movements and facial expressions in all three trimesters of pregnancy and the continuation of behavior from the fetal to neonatal period. Moreover, we introduce a new scoring system (KANET, Kurjak Antenatal Neurological Test) for assessment of the fetal neurological status using 4D ultrasound. 4D ultrasound also facilitated the evaluation of inter-human contact in twin pregnancies in utero. This novel technique may assist in the evaluation of fetal behavior and inter-twin contact, and offer potential advantages relative to conventional two-dimensional ultrasound. 4D ultrasound should become an important modality in future research on fetal neurobehavioral development and the prenatal identification of severely brain-damaged infants. Further studies involving a larger sample size are needed to ascertain the role of 4D ultrasound in the evaluation of fetal neurobehavioral development.
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