Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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VOLUME 4 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2010 ) > List of Articles


Four-dimensional Ultrasound Evaluation of Fetal Neurobehavioral Development

Hirokazu Tanaka, Mutsuko Sasaki

Keywords : 4D ultrasound,Fetal neurobehavioral development,KANET score,Inter-twin contact,Singleton pregnancy,Twin pregnancy,Maternal-fetal bonding

Citation Information : Tanaka H, Sasaki M. Four-dimensional Ultrasound Evaluation of Fetal Neurobehavioral Development. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010; 4 (3):233-248.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1146

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-06-2011

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2010; The Author(s).


The introduction of four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound techniques would facilitate fetal behavioral assessment in three-dimensions in realtime during pregnancy. We describe the latest 4D sonographic studies on fetal behavior, especially fetal whole-body movements and facial expressions in all three trimesters of pregnancy and the continuation of behavior from the fetal to neonatal period. Moreover, we introduce a new scoring system (KANET, Kurjak Antenatal Neurological Test) for assessment of the fetal neurological status using 4D ultrasound. 4D ultrasound also facilitated the evaluation of inter-human contact in twin pregnancies in utero. This novel technique may assist in the evaluation of fetal behavior and inter-twin contact, and offer potential advantages relative to conventional two-dimensional ultrasound. 4D ultrasound should become an important modality in future research on fetal neurobehavioral development and the prenatal identification of severely brain-damaged infants. Further studies involving a larger sample size are needed to ascertain the role of 4D ultrasound in the evaluation of fetal neurobehavioral development.

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