Ultrasonography of the endometrium is a noninvasive way to evaluate the chance of successful implantation during in vitro fertilization treatment. Ultrasound parameters of endometrial receptivity include endometrial thickness, endometrial pattern, endometrial volume, Doppler studies of uterine vessels and the endometrium. Endometrial thickness, pattern and volume are not predictive of pregnancy. A good blood supply towards the endometrium is usually considered to be an essential requirement for implantation. Doppler study of uterine arteries does not reflect the actual blood flow to the endometrium. Endometrial and subendometrial vascularity can be more objectively measured with three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound. However, the role of endometrial and subendometrial vascularity in predicting pregnancy of in vitro fertilization treatment remains controversial.
Dating the endometrial biopsy. Fertil Steril 1950;1:3-25.
Concentration of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in uterine flushing fluid is highly predictive of embryo implantation. Hum Reprod 2002;17:213-18.
Wide genomic analysis of human endometrial receptivity: New times, new opportunities Hum Reprod Update 2007;13:77-86.
The role of endometrial blood flow in the prediction of pregnancy during in vitro fertilization treatment. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2007;135:8-16.
Measurement of endometrial tissue blood flow: A novel way to assess uterine receptivity for implantation. Fertil Steril 2001;76:1168-74.
Reliability of intraobserver and interobserver sonographic endometrial stripe thickness measurements. Fertil Steril 1998;70:152-54.
Prospective evaulation of the ultrasound appearance of the endometrium in a cohort of 1,186 infertile women. Fertil Steril 2000;73:106-13.
Assessment of uterine receptivity prior to embryo transfer: A review of currently available imaging modalities. Hum Reprod Update 1995;1: 505-14.
The role of ultrasonography in the evaluation of endometrial receptivity following assisted reproductive treatments: A critical review. Hum Reprod Update 1996;2:323-35.
Ultrasonic assessment of endometrial changes in stimulated cycles in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer program. J In Vitro Fertil. Embryo Transf 1984;1:233-38.
Ultrasound study of the endometrium during in vitro fertilization cycles. Fertil Steril 1985;44:786-90.
Prediction of implantation by the sonographic appearance of the endometrium during controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF). J In Vitro Fertil Embryo Transf 1990;7:146-52.
The impact of sonographic assessment of the endometrium and meticulous hormonal monitoring during natural cycles in patients with failed donor artificial insemination. J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1991;1:122-26.
Establishment of a successful pregnancy following in vitro fertilization with an endometrial thickness of no more than 4 mm. Hum Reprod 1998;13:1550-52.
Endometrial thickness and serum estradiol concentrations as predictors of outcome in oocyte donation. Hum Reprod 1997;12:2271-75.
The detrimental effect of increased endometrial thickness on implantation and pregnancy rates and outcome in an vitro fertilization program. Fertil Steril 1999;71:147-49.
Assessment of endometrial receptivity by transvaginal color Doppler and threedimensional power Doppler ultrasonography in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization procedures. J. Ultrasound Med 2001;20:125-34.
Endometrial receptivity in an in vitro fertilization program as assessed by spiral artery blood flow, endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, and uterine artery blood flow. Fertil Steril 2001;75:361-66.
Endometrial pattern and thickness associated with pregnancy outcome after assisted reproduction technologies. Hum Reprod 1992;7:418-21.
Increased endometrial thickness on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin injection does not adversely affect pregnancy or implantation rates following in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 2002;77:781-86.
Assessment of the late proliferative phase endometrium by ultrasonography in patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET). Hum Reprod 1991;6:232-37.
Role of three-dimensional ultrasonographic measurement of endometrium volume as a predictor of pregnancy outcome in an IVF-ET program. A preliminary study. Fertil Steril 2000;74:797-801.
Evaluation of endometrial receptivity during invitro fertilization using three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;26:765-69.
The role of endometrial and subendometrial blood flow measured by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound in the prediction of pregnancy during in vitro fertilization treatment. Hum Reprod 2006;21:164-70.
Assessment of endometrial volume by three-dimensional ultrasound prior to embryo transfer: Clues to endometrial receptivity. Hum Reprod 1999;14:2851-54.
Are endometrial parameters by three-dimensional ultrasound and power Doppler angiography related to in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer outcome? Fertil Steril 2008;1:111-17.
Doppler sonographic findings and their correlation with implantation in an in vitro fertilization program. Fertil Steril 1989;52:825-28.
The use of transvaginal color flow imaging after in vitro fertilization to identify optimum uterine conditions before embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 1992;57:372-76.
Ultrasonographic predictors of implantation after assisted reproduction. Fertil Steril 1994;62:1004-10.
Sonographic uterine predictors of pregnancy in women undergoing ovulation induction for assisted reproductive treatments. Fertil Steril 1994;62:815-22.
Relationship between uterine blood flow and endometrial and subendometrial blood flow during stimulated and natural cycles. Fertil Steril 2006;85:721-27.
Uterine and ovarian perfusion during periovulatory period assessed by transvaginal color Doppler. Fertil Steril 1993;60:439-43.
Endometrial thickness morphology, vascular penetration and velocimetry in predicting implantation in an IVF program. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1995;6:191-98.
The relationship between endometrial thickness, and blood flow and pregnancy rates in in-vitro fertilization. Hum Reprod 1999;14:1067-71.
Colour Doppler changes and thromboxane production after ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophinreleasing hormone agonist. Hum Reprod 1997;12:2477-82.
Association of endometrial blood flow as determined by a modified colour Doppler technique with subsequent outcome of in-vitro fertilization. Hum Reprod 1999;14:1606-10.
Power Doppler endometrial evaluation as a method for the prognosis of embryo implantation in an ICSI program. J Assist Reprod Genet 2000;17:329-34.
Assessment of uterine receptivity by the endometrial-subendometrial blood flow distribution pattern in women undergoing in vitro fertilizationembryo transfer. Fertil Steril 2002;78:245-51.
Endometrial vascularity and ongoing pregnancy after IVF. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002;104:137-43.
A Threedimensional power Doppler sonography: Imaging and quantifying blood flow and vascularization. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1999;14:139-43.
The reliability of virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) for the semiquantification of ovarian, endometrial and subendometrial perfusion. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2003;22:633-39.
The interobserver reliability of three-dimensional power Doppler data acquisition within the female pelvis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2004;23:501-08.
Quantitative assessment of subendometrial blood flow by three-dimensional-ultrasound is an important predictive factor of implantation in an in-vitro fertilization programme. Hum Reprod 2000;15:89-94.
Detection of the subendometrial vascularization flow index by three-dimensional ultrasound may be useful for predicting the pregnancy rate for patients undergoing in vitro fertilizationembryo transfer. Fertil Steril 2003;79:507-11.
Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound of the subendometrial blood flow under the administration of a contrast agent (Levovist). Arch Gynecol Obstet 2004;270:94-98.
Factors affecting endometrial and subendometrial blood flow measured by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound during in vitro fertilization treatment. Hum Reprod 2006;21:1062-69.
The role of endometrial and subendometrial vascularity measured by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound in the prediction of pregnancy during frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles. Hum Reprod 2006;21:1612-17.
Endometrial and subendometrial vascularity is higher in pregnant patients with live birth following ART than in those who suffer a miscarriage. Hum Reprod 2007;22:1134-41.
The cyclic pattern of the immunocytochemical expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in human myometrial and endometrial layers: Characterization of the endometrial-subendometrial unit. Hum Reprod 1999;14:190-97.
Endometrial blood flow measured by xenon 133 clearance in women with normal menstrual cycles and dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987;156:158-66.
Quantifying the changes in endometrial vascularity throughout the normal menstrual cycle with three-dimensional power Doppler angiography. Hum Reprod 2004;19:330-38.
Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human endometrium is regulated by hypoxia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:402-09.
Adriana and Luisa Castellucci award lecture 1999:Role of oxygen in the regulation of trophoblast gene expression and invasion. Placenta 2000;21:443-50.
Endometrial and subendometrial perfusion are impaired in women with unexplained subfertility. Hum Reprod 2004;19:2605-14.
Changes in endometrial and subendometrial blood flows in IVF. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 2009;18:269-75.