Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Register      Login

VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2009 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Cervical Length, Volume and Flow Indices During Pregnancy by Transvaginal 2D and 3D Ultrasonography

Alin Basşgül Yig¢iter, Zehra Nesşe Kavak

Keywords : cervical length measurement,power Doppler,Three-dimensional ultrasound,VOCAL,volume

Citation Information : Yig¢iter AB, Kavak ZN. Cervical Length, Volume and Flow Indices During Pregnancy by Transvaginal 2D and 3D Ultrasonography. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009; 3 (3):39-44.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1019

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-09-2009

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2009; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Recently, many researches suggested that 2D US is insufficient for defining the true sagittal plane of uterine cervix. When the cervix is bent or curved, it is difficult to get a perfect sagittal section but rather mid oblique image by 2D US. Only 3D US allows us to evaluate the cervix in the coronal section and reproduce images in many cut. Coronal section of the cervix is especially useful in evaluating cervical funneling. Diagnosing internal orifice dilatation, asymmetrical, flattened or fissure-like cervices is possible. 3D US favors a more detailed study of cervical anatomy and biometry than 2D US. Cervical evaluation by 3D multiplanar sections can be added in the screening for preterm labor.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging combined with power Doppler, theoretically provides the possibility to assess the volume and quantify the power Doppler signal in the whole target organ, whereas, information from 2D US on vascularization and blood flow is restricted to a single subjectively chosen 2D plane. The measurement of cervical indices is reproducible and may be used in clinical practice and research to determine the changes of the cervical morphology and vascularization in pregnancy. Consequently, further studies of 3D ultrasound imaging of the cervix in pregnancy and clinical correlations to obstetrical events are required for better understanding the physiology and functional pathophysiology of the cervix during pregnancy.


PDF Share
  1. Prediction of risk for preterm delivery by ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;163:859-67.
  2. Ultrasound based diagnosis of cervical insufficiency and evidence to support the intervention. In: Kurjak A, Chervenak FA, editors. Donald school textbook of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2nd ed. India: Jaypee brothers medical publishers 2008;465-72.
  3. Three-dimensional ultrasound of uterine cervix in pregnancy: Prospects. Radiol Bras 2006;39:4:305-08.
  4. Three-dimensional vaginal sonography in obstetrics and gynecology. Human Reproduction 2000;6:475-84.
  5. Comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound in the assessment of the cervix to predict preterm delivery. Ultrasound Med Biol 2003;29:1261-65.
  6. Cervical length measurements in pregnancy are longer when measured with threedimensional transvaginal ultrasound. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2004;16:167-70.
  7. Three-dimensional multiplanar transvaginal ultrasound of the cervix in pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2000;16:351-58.
  8. Three-dimensional fetal ultrasound. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2000;14:611-27.
  9. Pitfalls in ultrasonic cervical length measurement for predicting preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93:510-16.
  10. Sonographic cervical volumetry in higher order multiple gestation. Fetal Diagn Ther 2001;16:346-53.
  11. 3D ultrasound and perinatal medicine. J Perinat Med 2002;30:5-7.
  12. 3D Power Doppler in the study of fetal and maternal angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. In: Kurjak A, Chervenak FA, editors. Donald school textbook of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2nd ed. India: Jaypee brothers medical publishers 2008;433-51.
  13. Reference data representative of normal findings at three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound examination of the cervix from 17 to 41 gestational weeks. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006;28(6): 761-67.
  14. Intra- and interobserver agreement on cervical volume and flow indices during pregnancy using transvaginal 3-dimensional ultrasonography and Doppler angiography. Int J Fertil Womens Med 2006;51(6):256-61.
  15. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of three-dimensional gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound examinations of the cervix in pregnant women. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;26:132-307.
  16. Three-dimensional ultrasound power Doppler assessment of the cervix: comparison between nulliparas and multiparas. J Perinat Med 2007;35(1):48-50.
  17. Predictive value of two-dimensional and three-dimensional multiplanar ultrasound evaluation of the cervix in preterm labor. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2003;13:237-41.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.