Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Register      Login

VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2009 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Advances in Visualization of the Early Human Development

Guillermo Azumendi, Kazuo Maeda, Ritsuko K Pooh, Iva Lausin

Keywords : First trimester,placenta,sonoembriology,three-dimensional ultrasound

Citation Information : Azumendi G, Maeda K, Pooh RK, Lausin I. Advances in Visualization of the Early Human Development. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009; 3 (3):25-38.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1018

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-09-2009

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2009; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

The anatomy and physiology of placental and embryonic development is a field where medicine exerts its impact on early pregnancy and opens fascinating aspects of embryonic differentiation. The introduction of high frequency transvaginal transducers as well as three and four dimensional sonography has resulted in remarkable progress in ultrasonic visualization of early embryos and fetuses.

Ultrasound has been widely used in the field of early human development due to its safety, diagnostic accuracy and convenience. Normal fetal anatomy and development have been widely investigated using two-dimensional ultrasound and most of the knowledge regarding early human development were established through understanding of sectional images of fetal body and organs obtained by two-dimensional ultrasound. Usage of new techniques has produced more objective and accurate information of embryonal and early fetal development. For the first time parallel analyses of structural and functional parameters in the first 12 weeks of gestation become possible. This article deals with establishment of human life from ovum and sperm, though fertilization, detailed histological development and the establishment of the placenta, and early human development visualized by 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasonography.


PDF Share
  1. Clinical application of three-dimensional ultrasound in fetal brain assessment. Croat Med J 2000;41:245-51.
  2. The beginning of human life and its modern scientific approach. Clin Perinatol 2003;30:27-44.
  3. Implantation and the establishment of the placenta. U: MJ Johnson, BJ Everitt, Essential reproduction. Oxford: Blackwell science 1999:173-93.
  4. Early human development: An overview. U: A Kurjak, FAChervenak. Controversise on the beginning of the human life. New Delhi: Jaypee brothers medical publishers 2008;151-66.
  5. The first two weeks of human development. U:KL Moore, TVN Persaud, K Shiota. Color atlas of clinical emrbyology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders company 2000;1-12.
  6. Gamete, oplodnja i rani razvoj zametka. U: V Simunic. Ginekologija. Zagreb: Naknada Ljevak 2001:61-77.
  7. Od ovulacije do implantacije. U: TW Sadler. Langmanova medicinska embriologija. Zagreb: Školska knjiga 1996;23-41.
  8. Structure and function of the proteins of the mammalian zona pellucida. Cells Tissues Organs 2000;166:148-64.
  9. Early endometrial changes following successful implantation: 2 and 3-dimensional ultrasound study. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2008;35:255-56.
  10. The role of endometrial blood flow measured by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound in the prediction of pregnancy during in vitro fertilization treatment. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2007;135:8-16.
  11. Endometrial and subendometrial vascularity are significantly lower in patients with endometrial volume 2.5 ml or less. Reprod Biomed Online 2009;18:262-68.
  12. Structural and functional early human development assessted by three-dimensional and fourdimensional sonography. Fertil Steril 2005;84:1285-99.
  13. The detection of spina bi?da before 10 gestational weeks using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2000;16:20-29.
  14. Imaging of placental vasculature using three-dimensional ultrasound and color power Doppler: A preliminary study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1998;12:45-49.
  15. Intervillous blood? Ow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy. Croat Med J 1998;39:10-14.
  16. The emergence of fetal behaviour: I. Qualitative aspects. Early Hum Dev 1985;12:99-120.
  17. Three- and four-dimensional ultrasonography for the structural and functional evaluation of the fetal face. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;196:16-28.
  18. Prenatal diagnosis: What does four-dimensional ultrasound add? J Perinat Med 2002;30:57-62.
  19. New scoring system for fetal neurobehavior assessed by three- and four-dimensional sonography. J Perinat Med 2008;36:73-81.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.