Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Register      Login

VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2009 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sonographic Assessment of the Umbilical Cord

Mladen Predanic

Citation Information : Predanic M. Sonographic Assessment of the Umbilical Cord. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009; 3 (2):48-57.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1014

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-06-2009

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2009; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract


PDF Share
  1. Murray Note: Upon an Early Egyptian Standard. JSTOR: Man 1911;11:165-71.
  2. Maori medical Lore: Transactions and proceedings of the Royal society of New Zealand. National Library of New Zealand [electronic source] 1904;37:92-101.
  3. The epileptic among the Bamileke of Maham in the NDE Division, West province of Cameroon. Cult Med Psychiatry 1989;13:437-38.
  4. Anatomy and Pathology of the umbilical cord and major fetal vessels. In. Benirsschke K, Kaufmann P. Pathology of the human placenta (4th ed), Springer, New York 2000;335-98.
  5. The placenta, umbilical cord, and membranes. In: Nyberg DA, McGahan JP, Pretorius DH, Pilu G. Diagnostic imaging of fetal anomalies (2nd ed), Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2003:85-132.
  6. Disparate blood flow patterns in parallel umbilical arteries. Obstet Gynecol 1998;9:757-60.
  7. Umbilical cord length: Clinical significance. J Pediatr 1985;107:278-81.
  8. Nuchal cord type A and type B. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;177:94.
  9. Ultrasound measurement of umbilical cord length. J Ultrasound Med 1994;13:854.
  10. Sonographic determination of first trimester umbilical cord length. J Clin Ultrasound 1994;22:435-38.
  11. Sonographic measurement of the umbilical cord and fetal anthropometric parameters. Eu J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1999;83:131-35.
  12. Sonographic measurements of the umbilical cord and vessels during normal pregnancies. J Ultrasound Med 1994;13:11-14.
  13. The umbilical cord thickness measured at 18 to 23 weeks of gestational age in pregnancies without adverse perinatal outcomes. J Fetal Mat Neon Med 2005;17:111-16.
  14. Nomogram of Wharton's jelly as depicted in the sonographic cross-section of the umbilical cord. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2001;18:121-25.
  15. Umbilical cord morphology and pregnancy outcome. Eu J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2001;96:150-57.
  16. Prenatal diagnosis of a lean umbilical cord: A simple marker for the fetus at risk of being small for gestational age at birth. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1999;13:176-80.
  17. Sonographic measurements of the umbilical cord in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes. J Ultrasound Med 1997;16:691-94.
  18. First-trimester umbilical cord diameter: A novel marker of fetal aneuploidy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2002;19:235-39.
  19. Fetal aneuploidy and umbilical cord thickness measured at 14 to 22 weeks of gestational age. J Ultrasound Med 2004;23:1177-83.
  20. Umbilical cord diameter at 11-14 weeks of gestation: Relation to chromosomal defects. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2004;23:237-39.
  21. Morphological classification of nuchal skin in human fetuses with trisomy 21, 18 and 13 at 12-18 weeks and in a trisomy 16 mouse. Anat Embryiol (Berl) 1998;197:105-24.
  22. Collagen type IV gene expression in the skin of trisomy 21 fetuses. Obstet Gynecol 1998;91:319-23.
  23. First-trimester umbilical cord diameter: A novel marker of fetal aneuploidy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2002;19:235-39.
  24. Single umbilical artery: Accurate diagnosis? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;169:538-40.
  25. Ectrodactyly, retroagnathia, abnormal ears, high arched palate, spina bifida, congenital heart defect, single umbilical artery. Am J Med Genet 1991;40:414-16.
  26. Prenatal diagnosis of the two-vessel cord: Implications for patient counseling and obstetric management. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1995;5:98-105.
  27. Single umbilical artery. Am J Dis Child 1989;143:108-11.
  28. Evaluation echographique du syndrome de l'artere ombilicale unique: Une serie de 80 cas. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod 1989;18:341-48.
  29. Single umbilical artery: A statistical analysis of 237 autopsy cases and review of the literature. Perspect Pediatr Pathol 1984;8:345-78.
  30. Isolated single umbilical artery anomaly and the risk for congential malformations: A meta-analysis. J Pediatr Surg 1998;33:580-85.
  31. Fetal growth assessment and neonatal birth weight in fetuses with an isolated single umbilical artery. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:1093-97.
  32. The clinical significance of antenatal detection of discordant umbilical arteries. Obstet Gynecol 1998;91:86-91.
  33. Antenatal assessment of discordant umbilical arteries in singleton pregnancies. Croat Med J 2006;47:701-08.
  34. A case of sicordant flow velocity waveforms in nonanastomosing umbilical arteries. A morphometric analysis. J Matern Fetal Invest 1992;2:215-19.
  35. Some observations on the foetal vessels of the human placenta with an account of the corrosion technique. J Anatomy 1938;72:358-64.
  36. Avoiding ambiguity in the sonographic determination of the direction of umbilical cord twist. J Ultrasound Med 1992;11:185-89.
  37. Helical structure of the human umbilical cord. Acta Anat 1979;103:226-30.
  38. Second-trimester ultrasonographic assessment of the umbilical coiling index. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2002;20:458-631.
  39. Abnormal umbilical cord coiling is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2000;3:462-71.
  40. Abnormal vascular coling of the umbilical cord in gestational diabetes mellitus. Arch Physiol Biochem 2001;109:209-14.
  41. Umbilical coiling index: Is it amarker for the foetus at risk? Br J Clin Pract 1996;50:254-56.
  42. The umbilical coiling index. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;170:29-32.
  43. Maternal risk factors for abnormal vascular coiling of the umbilical cord. Am J Perinatol 2000;17:441-45.
  44. Sonographic estimation of umbilical coiling index and correlation with Doppler flow characteristics. Obstet Gynecol 1995;86:990-93.
  45. An assessment of the umbilical cord coiling at the routine fetal sonographic anatomic survey in the second trimester. J Ultrasound Med 2005;24:185-91.
  46. Ultrasound evaluation of abnormal umbilical cord coiling in second trimester of gestation in association with adverse pregnancy outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;193:387-94.
  47. The umbilical coiling index in normal pregnancy. J Matern Fetal neonatal Med 2002;11:280-83.
  48. Malformations of the umbilical cord. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 1977;26:259-66.
  49. Fetal and funicular vascular anomalies: Identification with prenatal US. Radiology 1989;173:367-70.
  50. Varix of the fetal intra-abdominal umbilical vein: Comparison with normal. J Ultrasound Med 1992;11:73-76.
  51. Fetal prognosis in varix of the intrafetal umbilical vein. J Ultrasound Med 1998;17:171-75.
  52. Prenatal diagnosis of umbilical cord aneurysm in a fetus with trisomy 18. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2001;17:79-81.
  53. Thrombosing umbilical vein varix. J Ultrasound Med 1998;17:189-92.
  54. Varix of the fetal intra-abdominal umbilical vein: Prenatal sonographic diagnosis and suggested in utero management. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2000;16:476-78.
  55. Omphalocele associated with umbilical cord allantoic cyst: Sonographic evaluation in utero. Radiology 1983;149:473-76.
  56. Sonographic first-trimester diagnosis of umbilical cord cyst. J Clin Ultrasound 1989;17:53-55.
  57. Persistent patent urachus with allantoic cyst: A case report. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1997;10:366-68.
  58. The sonographic finding of persistent umbilical cord cystic masses is associated with lethal aneuploidy and/or congenital anomalies. Prenat Diagn 1996;16:1141-47.
  59. Umbilical cord pseudocyst in trisomy 18. Prenat Diagn 1988;8:557-63.
  60. Prenatal diagnosis of umbilical cord pseudocyst. Ultrasound obstet Gynecol 1994;4:147-50.
  61. Umbilical cord cysts in early pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:442-45.
  62. Angiomyxoma of the umbilical cord with massive cystic degeneration of Wharton's jelly. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1989;113:935-37.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.