Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2008 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Fetal Behavior in High-risk Pregnancies Assessed by Two-Dimensional (2D) and Three-Dimensional/Four-Dimensional (3D)/(4D) Ultrasound: A Review

Ana Tikvica, Berivoj Miskovic, Badreldeen Ahmed

Keywords : Fetal behavior,high-risk pregnancies,cerebral palsy,behavior in fetus with congenital disorders,antenatal behavior screening

Citation Information : Tikvica A, Miskovic B, Ahmed B. Fetal Behavior in High-risk Pregnancies Assessed by Two-Dimensional (2D) and Three-Dimensional/Four-Dimensional (3D)/(4D) Ultrasound: A Review. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008; 2 (3):35-47.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1064

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-09-2008

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2008; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Direct assessment of functional development of the fetal central nervous system is not possible, but the assessment of fetal behavior may provide the possibility to distinct between normal and abnormal brain development. Since the ultrasonographic technique allowed the investigation of spontaneous fetal motor activity in utero first studies of spontaneous prenatal movements and fetal behavior were performed and published. 2D ultrasound was considered somewhat subjective method because information needs observer interpretation. The latest development of three-dimensional (3D) and four dimensional (4D) sonography that overcame some of the limitations of 2D methods enable precise study of fetal and even embryonic activity and behavior. In the following text we reviewed the literature on the behavior in the high-risk pregnancies for cerebral palsy assessed by the ultrasonographic techniques.


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