Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2008 ) > List of Articles


Fetal Behavior in High-risk Pregnancies Assessed by Two-Dimensional (2D) and Three-Dimensional/Four-Dimensional (3D)/(4D) Ultrasound: A Review

Ana Tikvica, Berivoj Miskovic, Badreldeen Ahmed

Keywords : Fetal behavior,high-risk pregnancies,cerebral palsy,behavior in fetus with congenital disorders,antenatal behavior screening

Citation Information : Tikvica A, Miskovic B, Ahmed B. Fetal Behavior in High-risk Pregnancies Assessed by Two-Dimensional (2D) and Three-Dimensional/Four-Dimensional (3D)/(4D) Ultrasound: A Review. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008; 2 (3):35-47.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1064

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-09-2009

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2008; The Author(s).


Direct assessment of functional development of the fetal central nervous system is not possible, but the assessment of fetal behavior may provide the possibility to distinct between normal and abnormal brain development. Since the ultrasonographic technique allowed the investigation of spontaneous fetal motor activity in utero first studies of spontaneous prenatal movements and fetal behavior were performed and published. 2D ultrasound was considered somewhat subjective method because information needs observer interpretation. The latest development of three-dimensional (3D) and four dimensional (4D) sonography that overcame some of the limitations of 2D methods enable precise study of fetal and even embryonic activity and behavior. In the following text we reviewed the literature on the behavior in the high-risk pregnancies for cerebral palsy assessed by the ultrasonographic techniques.

PDF Share
  1. Qualitative changes of spontaneous movements in fetus and preterm infant are a marker of neurological dysfunction. Early Hum Dev 1990;23:151-58.
  2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
  3. Fetal behavioral and structural abnormalities in high-risk fetuses assessed by 4D sonography. Ultrasound Rev Obstet Gynecol 2005;5:275-87.
  4. New scoring system for fetal neurobehavior assessed by three-and four-dimensional sonography. J Perinat Med 2008;36(1):73-81.
  5. Cerebral palsy and the application of criteria for acute intrapartum hypoxia. Obstet Gynecol 2006;107:1357-65.
  6. Delayed emergence of fetal behaviour in type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1985;12(2):167-72.
  7. Emergence of behavioural states in fetuses of type-1-diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987;15(4):231-51.
  8. Are there behavioural states in the human fetuses? Early Hum Dev 1982:6(2):177-95.
  9. Fetal behaviour in type-1 diabetic women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1986;21(5-6):315-20.
  10. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991;25(2):107-15.
  11. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991;25(2):117-33.
  12. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990; 24(2):131-52.
  13. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992;31(2):91-95.
  14. Early Hum Dev 1995; 24; 43(3):225-32.
  15. Fetal Doppler and behavioral responses during hypoglycemia induced with the insulin clamp technique in pregnant diabetic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;172(1 Pt 1):151-55.
  16. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;171(2):298-303.
  17. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-I diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997;24;50(1):13-25.
  18. The relationship between fetal activity and behavioral states and fetal breathing movements in normal and growth-retarded fetuses. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985;153(5):582-88.
  19. Behavioural states in growth-retarded human fetuses. Early Hum Dev 1985;12:183-97.
  20. Computerized analysis of behavioural states in asymmetrical growth retarded fetuses. J Perinat Med 1988;16(4):357-63.
  21. Fetal behaviour in growth retardation: its relationship to fetal blood flow. Prenat Diagn 1987;7(4):229-38.
  22. The effect of intrauterine growth retardation on the quality of general movements in the human fetus. Early Hum Dev 1992;28(2):119-32.
  23. The relationship between the quantity and quality of prenatal movements in pregnancies complicated by intra-uterine growth retardation and premature rupture of the membranes. Early Hum Dev 1992;30(3):193-209.
  24. Changes with time in fetal heart rate variation, movement incidences and haemodynamics in intrauterine growth retarded fetuses: a longitudinal approach to the assessment of fetal well being. Early Hum Dev 1993;31(3):195-208.
  25. Computerised analysis of behaviour in normal and growth-retarded fetuses. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1997;75(2):169-75.
  26. The effects of maternal hyperoxia on fetal breathing movements, body movements and heart rate variation in growth retarded fetuses. Early Hum Dev 1991;27(3):223-32.
  27. The assessment of fetal behavior of growth restricted fetuses by 4D sonography. J Perinat Med 2006;34:471-78.
  28. Effects of alcohol (ethanol) on the fetus. J Dev Physiol 1991;15(1):21-32.
  29. Effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on fetal breathing movements, gross body movements, and heart rate at 37 to 40 weeks’ gestational age. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983;145(2):251-57.
  30. Maternal ethanol ingestion and the occurrence of human fetal breathing movements. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1978;132(4): 354-58.
  31. Abnormal fetal behavioural state regulation in a case of high maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1986;14(3-4):321-26.
  32. Acute maternal alcohol consumption disrupts behavioral state organization in the near-term fetus. Pediatr Res 1998;44(5): 774-79.
  33. In utero cocaine exposure: observations of fetal behavioral state may predict neonatal outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161(3):685-90.
  34. Neurotoxicology 1995 Spring;16(1):139-43.
  35. State control in the substanceexposed fetus. I. The fetal neurobehavioral profile: an assessment of fetal state, arousal, and regulation competency. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1998;846:262-76.
  36. Fetal response to maternal methadone administration. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;193 (3 Pt 1):611-17.
  37. Foetal and neonatal thyroid disorders. Minerva Pediatr 2002;54(5):383-400.
  38. Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy treated with propylthiouracil. The significance of maternal and foetal parameters. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1977;56(5):463-66.
  39. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985;152(5):510-16.
  40. Transplacental infection of Coxsackievirus B3 pathological findings in the fetus. J Med Virol 2007;79(6):754-57.
  41. Perinatal infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Aust NZJ Obstet Gynaecol 1996;36(3):286-90.
  42. Fetal body and breathing movements as predictors of intraamniotic infection in preterm premature rupture of membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;159(2):363-68.
  43. The biophysical profile and the nonstress test: poor predictors of chorioamnionitis and fetal infection in prolonged preterm premature rupture of membranes. Obstet Gynecol 1992;80(1):106-10.
  44. Decreased amniotic fluid volume at < 32 weeks of gestation is associated with decreased fetal movements. Am J Perinatol 1996;13(8): 479-82.
  45. Arch Med Res 2007;38(8):864-67.
  46. Fetal behavior in smoking compared to non-smoking pregnant women. Infant Behav Dev 2007;30(3):422-30 Epub 2007 12. Links.
  47. An exploratory study of fetal behavior at 33 and 36 weeks gestational age in hypertensive women. Dev Psychobiol 2002;41(2):156-68.
  48. Comparison of fetal behavior in lowand high-risk pregnancies. Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2005;24(1):1-20.
  49. Changes in fetal motility as a result of congenital disorders: an overview. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007;29:590-99.
  50. Fetal behavioral and structural abnormalities in high risk fetuses assessed by 4D sonography. The Ultrasound Review of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2005;5:1-13.
  51. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2005;17:165.
  52. Can brain impairment be detected by in utero behavioural patterns? Arch Dis Child 1993;69:3-8.
  53. Simplified ultrasound screening for fetal brain function based on behavioral pattern. Early Hum Dev 2007;83:177-81.
  54. New scoring system for fetal neurobehavior assessed by three-and four-dimensional sonography. J Perinat Med 2008;36(1):73-81.
  55. Neurological assessment of the neonate revisited: a personal view. Dev Med Child Neurol 1990;32: 1105-13.
  56. Neurosonography in the second half of fetal life: a neonatologist's point of view. J Perinat Med 2006;34:437-46.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.