Three-dimensional ultrasound is advantageous in studying normal embryonic and fetal development, as well as providing information for families at risk for specific congenital anomalies by confirming normality. The introduction of highfrequency transvaginal transducers has resulted in remarkable progress in ultrasonographic visualization of early embryos and fetuses. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging in vivo compliments pathologic and histologic evaluation of the developing embryo, giving rise to a new term: 3D sonoembryology.
Clinical applications of three-dimensional ultrasound in obstetrics. In Baba K, D Jurkovic (Eds): Threedimensional ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. New York-London, The Parthenon Publishing Group 1997;29.
Trodimenzionalni ultrazvuk u ginekologiji i porodništvu. Ginekol Perinatol 1997;6:43.
Volume 3D scanning in the evaluation of fetal malformations: a new dimension in prenatal diagnosis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1995;4:222.
Volume 3D scanning : a new dimension in the evaluation of fetal malformations. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1993;3:131.
Three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound improves measurment of nuchal translucency. J Perinat Med 1999;27-91.
Three-dimensional visualization of the human embryo: a potential revolution in prenatal diagnosis. Editorial. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1996;7:393.
The use of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound for study of normal pathologic morphology of the human embryo and fetus: preliminary report. J Ultrasound Med 1995;14:757.
Three-dimensional ultrasound: abnormalities of the fetal face in surface and volume rendering mode. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1995;102:40.
Voluvision: Threedimensional ultrasonography of fetal malformations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;170:1312.
Three-dimensional ultrasound in diagnosing phocomelia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1995;5:238.
Three-dimensional sonography of conjoined twins at 10 weeks: a case report. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1998;11:292.
Three-dimensional ultrasound of fetal surface features. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1992;2:166.
In vivo threedimensional ultrasound reconstructions of embryos and early fetuses. Lancet 1998;352:1182.
Transvaginal color Doppler study of fetomaternal circulation in threatened abortion. Fetal Diagn Ther 1994;9:341.
Assessment of Endometrial Receptivity by Transvaginal Color Doppler and Three-dimensional Power Doppler Ultrasonography in Patients Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Procedures. J Ultrasound Med 2001;20:125-34.
Arterial anastomosis in the pregnant human uterus. Obstet Gynecol 1980;1:3-19.
Transvaginal color Doppler in the assessment of the uteroplacental circulation in normal early pregnancy. J Perinat Med 1993;21:25-34.
Transvaginal color Doppler assessment of the uteroplacental circulation 111 normal and abnormal early pregnancy. Early Human Dev 1992;29(1-3):385-89.
In vivo investigations of anatomy and physiology of early human placental circulation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1991;1:435-45.
Transvaginal color Doppler imaging in the assessment of uteroplacental blood flow in the normal first trimester pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;164:781-85.
Transvaginal color Doppler in the study of early pregnancies associated with fibroids. J Matern Fetal Invest 1992;2:81-87.
Uteroplacental arterial changes related to interstitial trophoblastmigration in early human pregnancy. Placenta 1983;4:397-14.
Trophoblastic invasion of human decidua from 8 to 18 weeks of pregnancy. Placenta 1986;1:3-19.
Trophoblast injury: a new etiological and pathological concept of preeclampsia. Croat Med J 2003;44 (2):148-56.
Doppler proof of the presence of intervillous circulation (Letter). Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1996;7:463.
A combined Doppler and morphopathological study of intervillous circulation. Book of Abstracts. The Fifth World Congress of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyoto, 25-29 November, 1995. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1995;6(suppl)116.
Transvaginal color Doppler in the study of early normal pregnancies and pregnancies associated with uterine fibroids. J Matern Fetal Invest 1992;3:81.
The study of morphology and circulation of early embryo by threedimensional ultrasound and power Doppler. J Perinat Med 1999;27:145-57.
Volume and vascularity of the volk sac studied by three-dimensional ultrasound and color Doppler. J Perinat Med 1999;27:91-96.
Dernonstration of Early Pregnancy with Three-Dimensional Ultrasound. In Merz E (Ed): 3D Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, New York, Baltimore 1998;31-37.
Three-dimensional imaging of the brain cavities in human embryos. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1995;5:228-32.
Ventricular system and choroid plexuses of the human brain during the embryonic period proper. Am J Anat 1990;189:285-302.
Application of transvaginal and abdominal three-dimensional ultrasound for the detection or exclusion of fetal malformations of the fetal face. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1997;9:2373.
Three-dimensional sonoembryology of the first trimester. In Clinical application of 3D sonography (Eds): Kurjak A, Kupesic S. The parthenon publishing NY, London, 2000,109-21.
Endovaginal appearance of the yolk sac in early pregnancy: normal growth and usefulness as a predictor of abnormal pregnancy outcome. Radiology 1988;166:109.
Volume and vascularity of the yolk sac studied by three-dimensional ultrasound and color Doppler. J Perinat Med 1999;27:97.
SC, Dashefsky SM. Endovaginal appearance of the volk sac in pregnancy: normal growth and usefulness as a predictor of abnormal pregnancy outcome. Radiology 1992;183:115-18.
Vascularization of yolk sac and vitelline duct in normal pregnancies studied by transvaginal color Doppler. J Perinat Med 1994;22:443.
Endovaginal sonography of the first trimester of pregnancy. Proceedings of the 3rd Intemational Perinatal and Gynecological Ultrasound Symposium Ottawa, Ontario, 1994;1-25.
Abdominal ultrasound examination of the first trimester fetus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;159:165-75.
Volume and vascularity of yolk sac assessed by three-dimensional and power doppler ultrasound; Early Pregnancy 2001;5(1):40-41.
Yolk sac calcification: A sonographic finding associated with intrauterine embryonic demise in the first trimester. Radiology 1988;166:109.
Volume and vascularity of the yolk sac studied by three-dimensional ultrasound and color Doppler. J Perinat Med 1999;27:91-96.
Migration of the germ cells of human embryos from the yolk sac to the primitive gonadal folds. Contrib Embryol Carnegie Inst 1948;32:67.
Conjoined twins in the United States 1970-1977. Teratology 1982;25:301.
Early ultrasonic diagnosis of conjoined twins. Harefuah 1993;124:741.
First trimester nuchal translucency: Problems with screening the general population I. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1995;102:381.
Down's syndrome screening. Lancet 1996;347:1625.
Fetal nuchal translucency test for Down's syndrome. Lancet 1997;350:1631.
The assessment of nuchal translucency with transabdominal and transvaginal sonographysuccess rates, repeatability and level of agreement. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1995;68:720.
Three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound improves measurement of nuchal translucency. J Perinat Med 1999;27:97-102.
Transvaginal fetal neurosonography: the first trimester of pregnancy. In Chervenak FA, A Kurjak, CH Comstock (Eds): Ultrasound and the fetal brain. Parthenon Publishing, London-New York 1995;95.
Exencephaly and anencephaly: a distinct anomaly or an embryologic precursor: in utero study by transvaginal sonography. Israel J Obstet Gynecol 1990;1,60.
Sonography of anencephaly: pitfalls in early diagnosis. J Clin Ultrasound 1989;17:397.
Natural history of fetal ventriculomegaly. Pediatrics 1988;82:692.
Exclusion of fetal ventriculomegaly with a single measurement: the width of the lateral ventricular atrium. Radiology 1988;169:711.
Choroid plexus dysmorphism detected by transvaginal sonography: The earliest sign of fetal hydrocephalus. J Clin Ultrasound 1991;19:547.
Mild lateral cerebral ventricular dilatation in utero: clinical significance and prognosis. Radiology 1990;176:237.
Holoprosencephaly and facial dysmorphia:nosology, etiology, and pathogenesis. Birth Defects 1971;7:125.
Conjoined twins in the United States 1970-1977. Teratology 1982;25:301.
Early diagnosis of holoprosencephaly. J Ultrasound Med 1992;11:57.
Holoprosencephaly: alobar. Fetus 1994;4:9.
Four-dimensional ultrasound in prenatal diagnosis: leading edge in imaging technology. Ultrasound Rev Obstet Gynecol 2001;1:144.
Prenatal diagnosis: what does four-dimensional ultrasound add? J Perinat Med 2002;30:57-62.
The study of morphology and circulation of early embryo by threedimensional ultrasound and Power Doppler. J Perinat Med 1999;27:145.
Medical embryology. Addison-Wesley 1994.
Close look at early embryonic development with high frequency transvaginal transducer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;159:676.
Evaluation of normal gestational sac growth: appearance of embryonic heartbeat and embryo body movements using the transvaginal technique. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:729.
Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991;25:107.
Unusual Complications at birth an a stillborn with spinal muscular atrophy. Zentralbl Allg Pathol 1988;134:567.
Lateralised behaviour in first trimester human foetuses. Neuropsychologia 1998;36,531.