Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Register      Login

VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 1 ( January-March, 2021 ) > List of Articles


Recent Results and Future Challenges in the Assessment of Fetal Brain Function

Asim Kurjak, Milan Stanojevic, Panagiotis Antsaklis

Keywords : Cerebral palsy, KANET test, Prenatal neurology, Structure and function of fetal brain

Citation Information : Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, Antsaklis P. Recent Results and Future Challenges in the Assessment of Fetal Brain Function. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021; 15 (1):10-37.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1682

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-03-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Clinical and epidemiological studies have revealed that cerebral palsy (CP) most often results from prenatal rather than perinatal or postnatal causes. Currently, although the momentous advances in prenatal and perinatal care, there is no mean to identify or expect the development of these disorders. Therefore, the development of diagnostic strategies to avoid and condense the saddle of perinatal brain damage has to turn into one of the most imperative tasks of contemporary perinatal medicine. The application of the new neurobehavioral test KANET might improve our understanding of prenatal neurodevelopmental events and possibly antenatal detection of CP and other neurological diseases.

PDF Share
  1. Salihagic-Kadic A, Kurjak A, Medic M, et al. New data about embryonic and fetal neurodevelopment and behaviour obtained by 3D and 4D sonography. J Perinat Med 2005;33:478–490.
  2. Pomeroy SL, Voipe JJ. Development of the nervous system. In: Polin RA, Fox WW, ed. Fetal and neonatal physiology. Philadelphia-London-Toronto-Montreal-Sydney-Tokyo: WB Saunders Copmany; 1992. 1491–1509.
  3. O’Rahilly R, Muller F. Minireview: summary of the initial development of the human central nervous system. Teratology 1999;60(1):39–41. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9926(199907)60:1<39::AID-TERA11>3.0.CO;2-I.
  4. Kostović I, Judaš M, Petanjek Z, et al. Ontogenesis of goal-directed behavior: anatomo-functional considerations. Int J Psychophysiol 1995;19(2):85–102. DOI: 10.1016/0167-8760(94)00081-O.
  5. Schaher S. Determination and differentiation in the development of the nervous system. In: Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, ed. Principles of Neural Science. 2nd ed., New York: Elsevier Science Publishing; 1985. pp. 730–732.
  6. Kostovic I. Prenatal development of nucleus basalis complex and related fibre system in man: a histochemical study. Neuroscience 1986;17(4):1047–1077. DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(86)90077-1.
  7. Okado N. Onset of synapse formation in the human spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 1981;10(201):211–219. DOI: 10.1002/cne.902010206.
  8. Kostovic I. Zentralnervensystem. In: Hinrichsen KV, ed. Humanembryologie. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1990. 381–448.
  9. Prechtl FHR. Ultrasound studies of human fetal behaviour. Early Hum Dev 1985;2(2):91–98. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(85)90173-2.
  10. lanniruberto A, Tajani E. Ultrasonographic study of fetal movements. Semin Perinatal 1981;4:175–181.
  11. Goto S, Kato TK. Early movements are useful for estimating the gestational weeks in the first trimester of pregnancy. In: Levski RA, Morley P, ed. Ultrasound ‘82. Oxford: Pergamon Press; 1983. pp. 577–582.
  12. Joseph R. Fetal brain and cognitive development. Dev Rev 1999;20(1):81–98. DOI: 10.1006/drev.1999.0486.
  13. de Vries JIP, Visser GHA, Prechtl HFR. The emergence of fetal behavior I. Qualitative aspects. Early Hum Dev 1982;7(4):301–322. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(82)90033-0.
  14. Kostovic I, Rakic P. Development of prestriate visual projections in the monkey and human fetal cerebrum revealed by transient cholinesterase staining. J Neurosci 1984;4(1):25–42. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.04-01-00025.1984.
  15. D’Elia A, Pighetti M, Moccia G, et al. Spontaneous motor activity in the normal fetus. Early Human Dev 2001;65(2):139–144. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-3782(01)00224-9.
  16. Prechtl HFR, Einspieler C. Is neurological assessment of the fetus possible? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1997;75(1):81–84. DOI: 10.1016/S0301-2115(97)00197-8.
  17. Roodenburg PJ, Wladimiroff JW, van Es A, et al. Classification and quantitative aspects of fetal movements during the second half of pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1991;25(1):19–35. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(91)90203-F.
  18. Prechtl FHR. Qualitative changes of spontaneous movements in fetus and preterm infant are a marker of neurological dysfunction. Early Hum Dev 1990;23(3):151–158. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(90)90011-7.
  19. Kurjak A, Azumendi G, Veček N, et al. Fetal hand movements and facial expression in normal pregnancy studied by four-dimensional sonography. J Perinat Med 2003;31(6):496–508. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2003.076.
  20. Andonotopo W, Stanojevic M, Kurjak A, et al. Assessment of fetal behavior and general movements by four-dimensional sonography. Ultrasound Rev Obstet Gynecol 2004;4(2):103–114. DOI: 10.3109/14722240400016895.
  21. Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, Azumendi G, et al. The potential of four-dimensional (4D) ultrasonography in the assessment of fetal awareness. J Perinat Med 2005;33(1):4653. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2005.008.
  22. Kurjak A, Pooh RK, Merce LT, et al. Structural and functional early human development assessed by three-dimensional (3D) and fourdimensional (4D) sonography. Fertil Steril 2005;84(5):1285–1299. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.03.084.
  23. Kurjak A, Miskovic B, Andonotopo W, et al. How useful is 3D and 4D ultrasound in perinatal medicine. J Perinat Med 2007;35(1):10–27. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2007.002.
  24. Andonotopo W, Medic M, Salihagic-Kadic A, et al. The assessment of embryonic and fetal neurodevelopment in early pregnancy: comparison between 2D and 4D sonographic scanning. J Perinat Med 2005;33:406–414.
  25. Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, Andonotopo W, et al. Fetal behavior assessed in all three trimesters of normal pregnancy by four-dimensional ultrasonography. Croat Med J 2005;46:772–780.
  26. Pooh RK, Ogura T. Normal and abnormal fetal hand positioning and movement in early pregnancy detected by three- and four-dimensional ultrasound. Ultrasound Rev Obset Gynecol 2004;4:46–51.
  27. Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, Andonotopo W, et al. Behavioral pattern continuity from prenatal to postnatal life-a study by four-dimensional (4D) ultrasonography. J Perinat Med 2004;32(4):346–353. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2004.065.
  28. Andonotopo W, Kurjak A, Kosuta MI. Behavior of anencephalic fetus studied by 4D sonography. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2005;17(2):165–168. DOI: 10.1080/jmf.
  29. Andonopo W, Kurjak A. The assessment of fetal behavior of growth restricted fetuses by 4D sonography. J Perinat Med 2006;34:471–478.
  30. Kurjak A, Andonotopo W, Hafner T, et al. Normal standards for fetal neurobehavioural developments -longitudinal quantification by four-dimensional sonography. J Perinat Med 2006;34:56–65.
  31. Kurjak A, Azumendi G, Andonotopo W, et al. Three- and four-dimensional ultrasonography for the structural and functional evaluation of the fetal face. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;196(1):16–28. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.090.
  32. Walusinski O, Kurjak A, Andonotopo W, et al. Fetal yawning assessed by 3D and 4D sonography. Ultrasound Rev Obstet Gynecol 2005;5(3):210–217. DOI: 10.3109/14722240500284070.
  33. Rosenbaum P, Paneth N, Leviton A, et al. A report: the definition and classification of cerebral palsy April 2006. Dev Med Child Neurol 2007;109(suppl):8–14.
  34. Palmer FB. Strategies for the early diagnosis of cerebral palsy. J Pediatr 2004;145(2):S8–S11. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.05.016.
  35. Walstab JE, Bell RJ, Reddihough DS, et al. Factors identified during the neonatal period associated with risk of cerebral palsy. Australian and New Zeland Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004;44(4):342–346. DOI: 10.1111/j.1479-828X.2004.00249.x.
  36. Nelson KB, Ellenberg JH. Neonatal signs as predictors of cerebral palsy. Pediatrics 1979;64:225–232.
  37. Amiel Tison C, Gosselin J, Kurjak A. Neurosonography in the seconf half of fetal life: a neonatologist point of view. J Perinat Med 2006;34:437–446.
  38. Gosselin J, Gahagan S, Amiel-Tison C. The Amiel-Tison neurological assessment at term: conceptual and methodological continuity in the course of follow-up. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2005;11(1):34–51. DOI: 10.1002/mrdd.20049.
  39. Amiel-Tison C. Update of the Amiel-Tison neurological assessment for the term neonate or at 40 weeks corrected age. Pediatr Neurol 2002;27(3):196–212. DOI: 10.1016/S0887-8994(02)00436-8.
  40. Volpe JJ. Neurological examination: Normaland abnormal fetures. In: Neurology of the newborn. 4th ed., Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2001. p 127.
  41. Einspieler C, Prechtl HFR, Bos AF, et al. Prechtl's, ethod on the qualitative assessment of general movements in preterm, term and young infants. Mac Keith Press, Cambridge; 2004. pp. 67–71
  42. Hadders-Algra M. General movements: a window for early identification of children at high risk for developmental disorders. J Pediatr 2004;145(2):S12–S18. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.05.017.
  43. Hadders‐Algra M, Nieuwendijk AWK, Maitijn A, et al. Assessment of general movements: towards a better understanding of a sensitive method to evaluate brain function in young infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 1997;39(2):89–99. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1997.tb07390.x.
  44. Bekedam DJ, Visser GHA, de Vries JJ, et al. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985;12(2):155–165. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(85)90178-1.
  45. Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990;23(3):159–191. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(90)90012-8.
  46. Seme-Ciglenečki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of high-risk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003;44:721–727.
  47. Cioni G, Prechtl HFR, Ferrari F, et al. Which better predicts later outcome in full term infants: quality of general movements or neurological examination? Early Hum Dev 1997;50(1):71–85. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-3782(97)00094-7.
  48. Einspieler C, Prechtl HFR, Ferrari F, et al. The qualitative assessment of general movements in preterm, term and young infants-review of the methodology. Early Hum Dev 1997;24(1):47–60. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-3782(97)00092-3.
  49. Ferrari F, Cioni G, Einspieler C, et al. Cramped synchronized general movements in preterm infants as an early marker for cerebral palsy. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002;156(5):460–467. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.156.5.460.
  50. Prechtl HFR. State of the art of a new functional assessment of the young nervous system. An early predictor of cerebral palsy. Early Hum Dev 1997;50(1):1–11. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-3782(97)00088-1.
  51. Kurjak A, Jackson D, ed. An atlas of three- and four-dimensional sonography in obstetrics and gynecology. London: Taylor & Francis Group; 2004.
  52. Sarnat HB. Anatomic and physiologic correlates of neurologic development in prematurity. In: Sarnat HB, ed. Topics in neonatal neurology. New York: Grune and Stratton; 1984. pp. 1–24.
  53. Sarnat HB. Functions of the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts in the human newborns. J Pediatr Neurol 2003;1(01):3–8. DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1557162.
  54. Amiel-Tison C. Clinical assessment of the infant nervous system. In: Levente MI, Chervenak FA, Whittle M, ed. Fetal and neonatal neurology and neurosurgery. 3rd ed., London: Churchill Livingstone; 2001. pp. 99–120.
  55. Salisbury AL, Duncan Fallone M, Lester B. Neurobehavioral assessment from fetus to infant: the NICU network neurobehavioral scale and the fetal neurobehavioral coding system. MRDD Research Reviews 2005;11(1):14–20. DOI: 10.1002/mrdd.20058.
  56. de Vries JIP, Visser GHA, Prechtl HFR. Fetal motility in the first half of pregnancy. In: Prechtl HFR, ed. Continuity of neural functions from prenatal to postnatal life. Clin Dev Med 94 Oxford: Blackwell; 1984. pp. 46–63.
  57. Kostović I, Seress L, Mrzljak L, et al. Early onset of synapse formation in the human hippocampus: a correlation with Nissl-Golgi architectonics in 15- and 16.5-week-old fetuses. Neuroscience 1989;30(1):105–116. DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(89)90357-6.
  58. Mutch L, Alberman E, Hagberg B, et al. Cerebral palsy epidemiology: where are we now and where are we going? Dev Med Child Neurol 1992;34(6):547–551. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1992.tb11479.x.
  59. Bax M, Goldstein M, Rosenbaum P, et al. Executive committee for the definition of cerebral palsy. Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy, April 2005. Dev Med Child Neurol 2005;47(8):571–576. DOI: 10.1017/S001216220500112X.
  60. Sankar C, Mundkur N. Cerebral palsy-definition, classification, etiology and early diagnosis. Indian J Pediatr 2005;72(10):865–868. DOI: 10.1007/BF02731117.
  61. Shapiro BK. Cerebral palsy: a reconceptualization of the spectrum. J Pediatr 2004;145(Suppl. 2):S3–S7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.05.014.
  62. Amiel-Tison C, GosselinJ, Infante-Rivard C. Head growth and cranial assessment at neurological examination in infancy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2002;44(9):643–648. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2002.tb00850.x.
  63. Pooh RK, Pooh K, Nakagawa Y, et al. Clinical application of three-dimensional ultrasound in fetal brain assessment. Croat Med J 2000;41:245–251.
  64. Campbell S, Lees C, Moscoso G, et al. Ultrasound antenatal diagnosis of cleft palate by a new technique: the 3D “reverse face” view. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;25(1):12–18. DOI: 10.1002/uog.1819.
  65. Kurjak A, Miskovic B, Stanojevic M, et al. New scoring system for fetal neurobehavior assessed by three- and four-dimensional sonography. J Perinat Med 2008;36(1):73–81. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2008.007.
  66. DiPietro JA. Neurobehavioral assessment before birth. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2005;11(1):4–13. DOI: 10.1002/mrdd.20047.
  67. Yigiter AB, Kavak ZN. Normal standards of fetal behavior assessed by four-dimensional sonography. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2006;19(11):707–721. DOI: 10.1080/14767050600924129.
  68. Rees S, Harding R. Brain development during fetal life: influences of the intra-uterine environment. Neurosci Lett 2004;361(1-3):111–114. DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2004.02.002.
  69. Kurjak A, Carrera J, Stanojevic M, et al. The role of 4D sonography in the neurological assessment of early human development. Ultrasound Rev Obstet Gynecol 2004;4(3):148–159. DOI: 10.3109/14722240400017075.
  70. Eidelman AI. The living fetus e dilemmas in treatment at the edge of viability. In: Blazer S, Zimmer EZ, ed. The embryo: scientific discovery and medical ethics. . Basel: Karger; 2005. pp. 351–370.
  71. Haak P, Lenski M, Hidecker MJC, et al. Cerebral palsy and aging. Dev Med Child Neurol 2009;51(Suppl 4):16–23. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03428.x.
  72. Einspieler C, Prechtl HF. Prechtl's assessment of general movements: a diagnostic tool for the functional assessment of the young nervous system. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2005;11(1):61–67. DOI: 10.1002/mrdd.20051.
  73. Moster D, Wilcox AJ, Vollset SE, et al. Cerebral palsy among term and postterm births. JAMA 2010;304(9):976–982. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2010.1271.
  74. Stanojevic M, Kurjak A, Salihagić-Kadić A, et al. Neurobehavioral continuity from fetus to neonate. J Perinat Med 2011;39(2):171–177. DOI: 10.1515/jpm.2011.004.
  75. Stanojevic M, Zaputovic S, Bosnjak AP. Continuity between fetal and neonatal neurobehavior. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2012;17(6):324–329. DOI: 10.1016/j.siny.2012.06.006.
  76. DiPietro JA, Costigan KA, Pressman EK. Fetal state concordance predicts infant state regulation. Early Hum Dev 2002;68(1):1–13. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-3782(02)00006-3.
  77. Thoman E, Denenberg V, Sievel J, et al. State organization in neonate: developmental inconsistency indicates risk for developmental dysfunction. Neuropediatrics 1981;12(01):45–54. DOI: 10.1055/s-2008-1059638.
  78. St James-Roberts I, Menon-Johansson P. Predicting infant crying from fetal movement data: an exploratory study. Early Hum Dev 1999;54(1):55–62. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-3782(98)00084-X.
  79. de Vries JI, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. The emergence of fetal behaviour. II. Quantitative aspects Early Hum Dev 1985;12(2):99–120. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(85)90174-4.
  80. de Vries JI, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. The emergence of fetal behaviour. III. Individual differences and consistencies. Early Hum Dev 1988;16(1):85–103.
  81. Kurjak A, Luetic AT. Fetal neurobehavior assessed by three-dimensional/four dimentional sonography. Zdrav Vestn 2010;79:790–799.
  82. Merz E, Abramowicz JS. 3D/4D Ultrasound in prenatal diagnosis: is it time for routine use? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2012;55(1):336–351. DOI: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3182446ef7.
  83. Kurjak A, Vecek N, Hafner T, et al. Prenatal diagnosis: what does four-dimensional ultrasound add? J Perinat Med 2002;30(1):57–62. DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2002.008.
  84. Kurjak A, Vecek N, Kupesic S, et al. Four dimensional ultrasound: how muvh does it improve perinatal practice? In: Carrera JM, Chervenak FA, Kurjak A, ed. Controversies in perinatal medicine, studies on the fetus as a patient. New York: A CRC Press Company Parthenon Publishing; 2003. p. 222.
  85. Predojevic M, Miskovic B, Ahmed B, et al. An attempt to standardize Kurjak's antenatal neurodevelopmental test: osaka consensus statement. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011;5(4):317–329. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1209.
  86. Kurjak A, Pooh R, Tikvica A, et al. Assessment of fetal neurobehaviour by 3D/4D ultrasound. Fetal Neurology 2009. pp. 222–250.
  87. Kurjak A, Tikvica A, Stanojevic M, et al. The assessment of fetal neurobehavior by three-dimensional and four-dimensional ultrasound. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2008;21(10):675–684. DOI: 10.1080/14767050802212166.
  88. Tomasovic S, Predojevic M. 4D Ultrasound - Medical devices for recent advances on the etiology of cerebral palsy. Acta Inform Med 2011;19(4):228–234. DOI: 10.5455/aim.2011.19.228-234.
  89. Pooh K, Pooh RK. Fetal ventriculomegaly. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007;1(4):40–46. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1118.
  90. Miskovic B, Ahmed B, Younis M, et al. An attempt to introduce neurological test for fetus based on 3D and 4D sonography. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;2(4):29–44. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1076.
  91. Nijhuis JG, ed. Fetal behaviour: developmental and perinatal aspects. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1992.
  92. Kuno A, Akiyama M, Yamashiro C, et al. Three-dimensional sonographic assessment of fetal behavior in the early second trimester of pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med 2001;20(12):1271–1275. DOI: 10.7863/jum.2001.20.12.1271.
  93. Koyanagi T, Horimoto N, Maeda H, et al. Abnormal behavioral patterns in the human fetus at term: correlation with lesion sites in the central nervous system after birth. J Child Neurol 1993;8(1):19–26. DOI: 10.1177/088307389300800103.
  94. Stanojevic M, Kurjak A. Continuity between fetal and neonatal neurobehavior. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;2(3):64–75. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1066.
  95. Kurjak A, Abo-Yaqoub S, Stanojevic M, et al. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal neurobehavior--multicentric study in high-risk pregnancies. J Perinat Med 2010;38(1):77–82. DOI: 10.1515/jpm.2010.012.
  96. Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, et al. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012;25(3):231–236. DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2011.568552.
  97. Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, et al. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011;24(7):948–954. DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2010.534830.
  98. Miskovic B, Vasilj O, Stanojevic M, et al. The comparison of fetal behavior in high risk and normal pregnancies assessed by four dimensional ultrasound. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2010;23(12):1461–1467. DOI: 10.3109/14767051003678200.
  99. Talic A, Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, et al. The assessment of fetal brain function in fetuses with ventrikulomegaly: the role of the KANET test. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012;25(8):1267–1272. DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2011.634463.
  100. Horimoto N, Koyanagi T, Maeda H, et al. Can brain impairment be detected by in utero behavioural patterns? Arch Dis Child 1993;69(1 Spec No):3–8. DOI: 10.1136/adc.69.1_Spec_No.3.
  101. Morokuma S, Fukushima K, Yumoto Y, et al. Simplified ultrasound screening for fetal brain function based on behavioral pattern. Early Hum Dev 2007;83(3):177–181. DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.05.012.
  102. Nijhuis JG, Prechtl HFR, Martin CB, et al. Are tere behavioral states in the human fetus? Early Hum Dev 1982;6(2):177–195. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(82)90106-2.
  103. Almli CR, Ball RH, Wheeler ME. Human fetal and neonatal movement patterns: gender difference and fetal-to-neonatal continuity. Dev Psychobiol 2001;38(4):252–273. DOI: 10.1002/dev.1019.
  104. DiPietro JA, Bornstein MH, Costigan KA, et al. What does fetal movement predict about behavior during the first two years of life? Dev Phych 2002;40(4):358–371. DOI: 10.1002/dev.10025.
  105. DiPietro JA, Hodgson DM, Costigan KA, et al. Fetal antecedents of infant temperament. Child Dev 1996;67(5):2568–2583. DOI: 10.2307/1131641.
  106. Salihagić-Kadić A, Medić M, Kurjak A, et al. Four-dimensional sonography in the assessment of fetal functional neurodevelopment and behavioural paterns. Ultrasound Rev Obstet Gynecol 2005;5(2):154–168. DOI: 10.3109/14722240500190640.
  107. Kurjak A, Carrera J, Medic M, et al. The antenatal development of fetal behavioral patterns assessed by four-dimensional sonography. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2005;17(6):401–416. DOI: 10.1080/14767050400029657.
  108. Honemeyer U, Kurjak A, The use of KANET test to assess fetal CNS function. First 100 cases. 10th World Congress of Perinatal Medicine 8-11 November 2011. Uruguay. Poster presentation P209.
  109. Lebit DF, Vladareanu PD. The role of 4D ultrasound in the assessment of fetal behaviour. Maedica (Buchar) 2011;6(2):120–127.
  110. Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high-risk pregnancies. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012;6(2):Q132–Q147. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1235.
  111. Honemeyer U, Talic A, Therwat A, et al. The clinical value of KANET in studying fetal neurobehavior in normal and at-risk pregnancies. J Perinat Med 2012;0(0):1–11.
  112. Hepper PG. Fetal behavior: why so skeptical? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1996;8(3):145–148. DOI: 10.1046/j.1469-0705.1996.08030145.x.
  113. Greenwood C, Newman S, Impey L, et al. Cerebral palsy and clinical negligence litigation: a cohort study. BJOG 2003;110(1):6–11. DOI: 10.1046/j.1471-0528.2003.02095.x.
  114. Strijbis EMM, Oudman I, van Essen P, et al. Cerebral palsy and the application of the international criteria for acute intrapartum hypoxia. Obstet Gynecol 2006;107(6):1357–1365. DOI: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000220544.21316.80.
  115. de Vries JI, Fong BF. Changes in fetal motility as a result of congenital disorders: an overview. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007;29(5):590–599. DOI: 10.1002/uog.3917.
  116. de Vries JI, Fong BF. Normal fetal motility: an overview. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006;27(6):701–711. DOI: 10.1002/uog.2740.
  117. Rosier-van Dunné FM, van Wezel-Meijler G, Bakker MP, et al. General movements in the perinatal period and its relation to echogenicity changes in the brain. Early Hum Dev 2010;86(2):83–86. DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2010.01.023.
  118. Hata T, Kanenishi K, Akiyama M, et al. Real-time 3-D sonographic observation of fetal facial expression. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2005;31(4):337–340. DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2005.00298.x.
  119. Kozuma S, Baba K, Okai T, et al. Dynamic observation of the fetal face by three-dimensional ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1999;13(4):283–284.
  120. Kurjak A, Talic A, Honemeyer U, et al. Comparison between antenatal neurodevelopmental test and fetal Doppler in the assessment of fetal well being. J Perinat Med 2013;41(1):107–114. DOI: 10.1515/jpm-2012-0018.
  121. Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, et al. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013;26(4):363–368. DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2012.695824.
  122. Neto RM. KANET in Brazil: first experience. Donald School J Ultrasound ObstetGynecol 2015;9(1):1–5. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1384.
  123. Hanaoka U, Hata T, Kanenishi K, et al. Does ethnicity have an effect on fetal behavior? a comparison of Asian and Caucasian populations. J Perinatal Med 2016;44(2):217–221. DOI: 10.1515/jpm-2015-0036.
  124. Antsaklis P, Porovic S, Daskalakis G, et al. 4D assessment of fetal brain function in diabetic patients. J Perinat Med 2017;45(6):711–715. DOI: 10.1515/jpm-2016-0394.
  125. Kurjak A, Predojevic M, Salihagic-Kadic A. Fetal brain function: lessons learned and future challenges of 4D sonography. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010 2011;2(5):85–92.
  126. Predojevic M, Vladareanu R, Antsaklis P, et al. Is Kurjak antenatal neurodevelopmental test ready for routine clinical application: Bucharest consensus statement. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(3):260–265. DOI: 10.5005/jp.journals-100009-1412.
  127. Predojević M, Talić A, Stanojević M, et al. Assessment of motoric and hemodynamic parameters in growth restricted fetuses - case study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014;27(3):247–251. DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2013.807241.
  128. Spencer-Smith MM, Spittle AJ, Doyle LW, et al. Long-term benefits of homebased preventive care for preterm infants: a randomized trial. Pediatr 2012;130(6):1094–1101. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-0426.
  129. Hata T, Hanaoka U, Mostafa AboEllail MA, et al. Is there a sex difference in fetal behavior? a comparison of the KANET test between male and female fetuses. J Perinat Med 2016;44(5):585–588. DOI: 10.1515/jpm-2015-0387.
  130. Kurjak A, Antsaklis P, Stanojevic M, et al. Multicentric studies of the fetal neurobehavior by KANET test. J Perinat Med 2017;45(6):717–727. DOI: 10.1515/jpm-2016-0409.
  131. Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, Spalldi Barisic L, et. al. A critical appraisal of Kurjak antenatal neurodevelopmental test (KANET) - five years of wide clinical use. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2020. (in press).
  132. Velde A, Morgan C, Novak I, et al. Early diagnosis and classification of cerebral palsy: an historical perspective and barriers to an early diagnosis. J Clin Med 2019;8(10):1599. DOI: 10.3390/jcm8101599.
  133. Novak I, Morgan C, Adde L, et al. Early, accurate diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy: advances in diagnosis and treatment. JAMA Pediatr 2017;171(9):897–900. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.1689.
  134. Romeo DMM, Cioni M, Palermo F, et al. Neurological assessment in infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2013;17(2):192–198. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2012.09.006.
  135. Kwong AK, Eeles AL, Olsen JE, et al. The baby moves smartphone app for general movements assessment: engagement amongst extremely preterm and term-born infants in a state-wide geographical study. J Paediatr Child Health 2019;55(5):548–554. DOI: 10.1111/jpc.14240.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.