Out of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) derived from the Millennium Declaration, three (goals IV, V, and VI) were health related. High infant, under-five, and maternal mortality rates decreased in developing countries, but the rate was not satisfactory, because the preset targets were not achieved by 2015. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether the problems of neonatal health could be solved by the same approach as for the implementation of the MDGs or the paradigm should be changed. It is proposed to use Antonovsky's concept of salutogenesis, which is health oriented, meaning that it cares about conditions and mechanisms contributing to preserving health, opposing to pathogenesis aiming to investigate the pathogenesis of the disease with the semiology, symptoms, syndromes, and concepts of systemic, iatrogenic, or endogenous causes of disease. Besides that it is important to increase the resilience of mothers and neonates, understood as “the capacity, processes, or outcomes of successful adaptation in the context of significant threats to function or development.” Implementing Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative of the World Health Organization and UNICEF in developing countries can preserve health of healthy mothers and healthy newborn infants by increasing their resilience.
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