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JAYPEE JOURNALS
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1.  Picture of the Month
Prenatal Diagnosis of Low-set Ears with Asymmetrical Microtia in the First Trimester
Ritsuko K Pooh
[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volume:10 ] [Number:2] [Pages:91] [Pages No:111-112] [No of Hits : 624]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1451 | PAID (Buy Now)

ABSTRACT

Initially, the external ears are in the lower neck region, but with the development of the mandible, they ascend to the side of the head at the level of the eyes. Low-set ear is one of the features often associated with genetic disorders, and external ear defects are significant because they are often associated with other malformations. The problem may occur as a symmetrical condition but an asymmetrical condition is not rare, in which one side of the face is maldeveloped. This defect varies in severity; however, it always includes maldevelopment of the ear and the mandible. Recent advanced 3D HDlive ultrasound enables us to demonstrate fetal external ear position and development even as early as in the first trimester. The picture of the month clearly demonstrated low-set ears with asymmetrical development of the ear and face at 12 weeks of gestation. Early detection of ear abnormality leads to further genetic and morphologic investigation as well as to proper management and counseling.

Keywords: Asymmetrical, Ear, Fetus, First trimester, Low-set, 3D ultrasound.a

How to cite this article: Pooh RK. Prenatal Diagnosis of Low-set Ears with Asymmetrical Microtia in the First Trimester. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016;10(2):111-112.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
2.  Editorial
Facts and Doubts about the Beginning of the Human Life and Personality
Asim Kurjak, Lara Spalldi Barisic, Taib Delic, Selma Porovic, Milan Stanojevic
[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:10 ] [Number:3] [Pages:160] [Pages No:205-213] [No of Hits : 594]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1470 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Scientists have been negligent in failing to translate science into the terms that allow mankind to share their excitement of discovering life before birth. In spite of remarkable scientific development, man’s curiosity, and speculations dating back to Hippocrates, life before birth still remains a big secret. Various kinds of intellectuals were involved in trying to offer their contribution to solve the human life puzzle. Their leading idea is that each newborn child will reach its full potential if its development in uterus is not exposed to any adverse influence, providing the best possible environment for the embryo/fetus. Considering the embryo/fetus, we should always keep in mind the amazing aspect of human life where the mother and the embryo/fetus, although linked in the most intimate relationships, are at all times two separate people. Considering the embryo/fetus as the person opened a new set of questions about its personality and human rights. Today, scientific data and hypotheses, philosophical thought, and issues in the humanities have become a necessity in order to deal with ethical, juridical, and social problems arising from man’s interference in many aspects and stages of life.

Keywords: Fetal life, Personality, Ultrasound diagnosis.

How to cite this article: Kurjak A, Spalldi Barisic L, Delic T, Porovic S, Stanojevic M. Facts and Doubts about the Beginning of Human Life and Personality. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016;10(3):205-213.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
3.  Review Article
Prenatal Detection of Critical Congenital Heart Disease
Lina W Irshaid, Najwa Elfky, Badreldeen Ahmed
[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volume:10 ] [Number:2] [Pages:91] [Pages No:131-135] [No of Hits : 540]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1455 | PAID (Buy Now)

ABSTRACT

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of infant mortality and 30% fetuses born with CHDs have other associated malformations and chromosomal abnormalities. Prenatal diagnosis also allows parents to opt for termination of the pregnancy.

Keywords: Critical congenital heart disease, Fetal echocardiography, Prenatal diagnosis.

How to cite this article: Irshaid LW, Elfky N, Ahmed B. Prenatal Detection of Critical Congenital Heart Disease. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016;10(2):131-135.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
4.  Review Article
Maternal and Perinatal Mortality in the 21st Century
Aris Antsaklis
[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volume:10 ] [Number:2] [Pages:91] [Pages No:143-146] [No of Hits : 525]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1457 | PAID (Buy Now)

ABSTRACT

The maternal mortality ratio measures how safe it is to become pregnant and give birth in a geographic area or a population. The total number of maternal deaths observed annually fell from 526,000 in 1980 to 358,000 in 2008, a 34% decline over this period. Similarly, the global MMR declined from 422 in 1980 to 320 in 1990 and was 250 per 100,000 live births in 2008, a decline of 34% over the entire period and an average annual decline of 2.3%.

More specifically, in 1990 around 58% of maternal deaths worldwide occurred in Asia and 36% in sub-Saharan Africa. In contrast, in 2008, 57% of global maternal deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa and 39% in Asia. In Europe, the main causes of death from any known direct obstetric complication remains bleeding (13%), thromboembolic events (10.1%), complicationassociated birth, hypertensive disease of pregnancy (9.2%), and amniotic fluid embolism (10.6%).

Preterm birth is the most common cause of perinatal mortality (PNM) causing almost 30% of neonatal deaths, while birth defects cause about 21% of neonatal deaths. The PNM rate refers to the number of perinatal deaths per 1,000 total births. Perinatal mortality rate may be below 10 for certain developed countries and more than 10 times higher in developing countries. Perinatal health in Europe has improved dramatically in recent decades. In 1975, neonatal mortality ranged from 7 to 27 per 1,000 live births in the countries that now make up the EU. By 2005, it had declined to 8 per 1,000 live births.

We need to bring together data from civil registration, medical birth registers, hospital discharge systems in order to have European Surveys which present exciting research possibilities.

Keywords: Maternal mortality, Perinatal mortality, Pregnancy.

How to cite this article: Antsaklis A. Maternal and Perinatal Mortality in the 21st Century. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016;10(2):143-146.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
5.  Review Article
Some Future Aspects within Perinatal Medicine considered by a Senior Fellow
Erich Saling
[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volume:10 ] [Number:2] [Pages:91] [Pages No:113-115] [No of Hits : 512]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1452 | PAID (Buy Now)

ABSTRACT

During the last six decades, a unique new field of applied medicine has been brought forward in the phase before the great biological event of birth, namely into the intrauterine space. On the basis of experiences collected during this time, a few selected thoughts about further aspects based on new but also on some old achievements are presented.

The first one concerns the hardly necessary too frequent use of antibiotics with its negative side effects, such as damage of intestinal flora. We found convincing results in a group of cases with premature rupture of membranes, using PVP-iodine solution for vaginal rinsing to practice in this way an efficient local antiseptic therapy until birth. Another example is amnioscopy, unfortunately replaced to a large extent. But its use remains appropriate because of the low expense and high safety of this method.

A current progress of great importance for the future is the field of perinatal programming. Malprogramming via epigenetic mechanisms results in a lifelong disposition for overweight, obesity, and diabetic metabolic disorders across generations. Important progress and reduction of risks in later life can be expected by suitable research.

A fascinating new field is fetal neurology. Fetal behavioral patterns diagnosed by four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound are directly reflecting developmental and maturational processes of the fetal central nervous system. Such information will hopefully be of great value for further elucidation of neurological problems, for instance, cerebral palsy.

And finally a field in which we have been involved in the 1980s concerns the compensatory intrauterine supply of malnourished fetuses.

Fortunately, there are some efforts to continue these studies to treat severe placental insufficiency with amino acid and glucose by intraumbilical supplementation via a port system.

Keywords: Amnioscopy, Fetal neurology, Perinatal programming, Supply of malnourished fetuses, Vaginal antiseptics.

How to cite this article: Saling E. Some Future Aspects within Perinatal Medicine considered by a Senior Fellow. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016;10(2):113-115.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
6.  Review Article
Ultrasound in Infertility
Sonal Panchal, CB Nagori
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9 ] [Number:1] [Pages:110] [Pages No:100-110] [No of Hits : 2941]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1396 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Evaluation of the complete cycle instead of only pre hCG scan is an essential for follicular monitoring. Using color Doppler in this assessment is mandatory because it allows to assess the functional status of follicle and endometrium. 3D ultrasound is useful for volume measurements, and 3D PD for assessment of global vascularity.
Baseline scan is done to predict the ovarian reserve and response and decide the stimulation protocols for ARTs. Uterus is assessed for receptivity. But baseline scan also diagnoses PCOS. This is by counting antral follicles, stromal flows and stromal and ovarian volume. Ultrasound features of ovary on baseline scan can also be correlated closely with the baseline hormonal status of ovaries-LH, FSH and Androgen. Ultrasound is a key tool to decide follicular maturity and endometrial receptivity and to decide the time of hCG and time of IUI. Doppler plays a major role in correct decision making and 3D and 3D power Doppler add to the details and also improves the success rates of different ARTs. Luteal phase also can be better explained by the use of Doppler. Ultrasound to hormonal correlation in both preovulatory and luteal phase helps plan the ART for positivity.

Keywords: Baseline scan, Preovulatory scan, Endometrial receptivity.

How to cite this article: Panchal S, Nagori CB. Ultrasound in Infertility. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):100-110.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
7.  Review Article
Fetal Neurology: Past, Present and Future
Asim Kurjak, Panagiotis Antsaklis, Milan Stanojevic
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9 ] [Number:1] [Pages:110] [Pages No:6-29] [No of Hits : 1963]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1385 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Neurological failure is the most apprehension complication of pregnancy, labor and the neonatal period. The origin and outcome correlation is frequently doubtful. The arrival of four-dimensional ultrasonography (4D US) and its function to study fetal behavior patterns have initiated to offer insight into the structural and functional fetal brain development. Although many fetal behavioral studies have been conducted, it is still questionable whether the assessment of continuity from fetal to neonatal behavior could improve our ability of early detection of brain pathology. Neurological assessment of fetus in utero is extremely difficult even having such sophisticated equipment like 4D ultrasound. As it is well known that quantity of GMs is not so informative and predictive for neurological impairment, their quality should be assessed. Gestalt perception of premature GMs we are dealing with in utero and several weeks postnatally are not as predictive for the detection of neurologically abnormal fetuses or newborns as fidgety GMs. Therefore, some additional parameters should be added to the prenatal neurological examination in order to improve our ability to make the distinction between normal and abnormal fetuses.

Keywords: Neurobehavioral development, Fetal behavior, Four-dimensional ultrasound.

How to cite this article: Kurjak A, Antsaklis P, Stanojevic M. Fetal Neurology: Past, Present and Future. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):6-29.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
8.  Review Article
First Trimester Anomaly Scan-The Last Redoubt Won: Open Spina Bifida
Stefania Tudorache, Iliescu Dominic Gabriel, Adina Turcu, Maria Florea, Roxana Dragusin, Liliana Novac, Cernea Nicolae, Daniela Cernea
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9 ] [Number:1] [Pages:110] [Pages No:80-90] [No of Hits : 1940]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1393 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Open spina bifida (OSB) is a non-lethal fetal anomaly, yet often leads to severe disability. Most cases of open spina bifida are detected at the second trimester fetal anomaly ultrasound scan. The 11 to 13 weeks of amenorrhea scan evolved over the last 20 years from essentially a dating scan, to a genetic scan, and recently to one which includes, in addition to the genetic markers, a basic checklist for examination of the whole fetal anatomy. The direct visualization of the spine at the first trimester (FT) scan remained difficult, despite the wider use of high-resolution ultrasound machines and the volumetric approach. Thus, indirect intracranial morphological markers for OSB were proposed to diagnose this neural tube defect.
The present review aims to describe the specific anatomical feature of the spine and the posterior brain, both on parasagittal and on axial planes, recently proposed for the early detection of OSB.
Specialists involved in the prenatal diagnosis will eventually elaborate in the future a screening protocol for OSB in the FT of pregnancy, using the most valuable and easy to obtain marker, in a single 2D plane.
The offer of an early diagnosis of possible severe anomalies, such as OSB, is a tool enhancing the autonomy of the pregnant woman.

Keywords: Open spina bifida, First trimester, Anomaly scan, Posterior brain.

How to cite this article: Tudorache S, Iliescu DG, Turcu A, Florea M, Dragusin R, Novac L, Nicolae C, Cernea D. First Trimester Anomaly Scan-The Last Redoubt Won: Open Spina Bifida. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):80-90.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared.

 
9.  Review Article
Prenatal Development of the Human Central Nervous System, Normal and Abnormal
Kohei Shiota
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9 ] [Number:1] [Pages:110] [Pages No:61-66] [No of Hits : 1628]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1390 | FREE

ABSTRACT

The organogenesis of the central nervous system (CNS) begins during the third week of development, but its maturation requires a considerably long period of time until after birth. Therefore the developing nervous system is vulnerable to the deleterious effects of environmental factors during the pre- and perinatal periods. In addition, molecular studies have revealed various gene mutations that are responsible for congenital CNS disorders. This chapter provides an overview of the prenatal development of the human brain and spinal cord.

Keywords: Neurulation, Neuroectoderm, Neural tube defect, Histogenesis, Neuronal migration, Myelination.

How to cite this article: Shiota K. Prenatal Development of the Human Central Nervous System, Normal and Abnormal. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):61-66.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared.

 
10.  Review Article
Uterine Malformations: Diagnosis with 3D/4D Ultrasound
Fernando Bonilla-Musoles, Noemi Martin, Mari Pepa Esquembre, Oscar Caballero, Juan Carlos Castillo, Francisco Bonilla Jr, Francisco Raga, Luiz Eduardo Machado
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:9 ] [Number:2] [Pages:109] [Pages No:123-148] [No of Hits : 1514]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10009-1400 | FREE

ABSTRACT

The development of the female genital system is a complex embryological process. Congenital malformations of the female genital tract may occur isolated or in combination with urologic defects. The aim of this review is to describe novel ultrasonographic advances to improve diagnostic accuracy of Müllerian malformations and to facilitate decisions about treatment and prognosis.

Keywords: Congenital uterine malformations, Female reproductive tract, Müllerian anomalies, Three-dimensional ultrasonography.

How to cite this article: Bonilla-Musoles F, Martin N, Esquembre MP, Caballero O, Castillo JC, Bonilla F Jr, Raga F, Machado L. Uterine Malformations: Diagnosis with 3D/4D Ultrasound. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(2):123-148.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
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